In , Greenberg took a series of jobs with the federal government, from Civil Service Administration, to the Veterans' Administration, and finally to the Appraisers' Division of the Customs Service in It was then that Greenberg began to write seriously, and soon after began getting published in a handful of small magazines and literary journals.
In this Marxist-influenced essay, Greenberg claimed that true avant-garde art is a product of the Enlightenment's revolution of critical thinking, and as such resists and recoils from the degradation of culture in both mainstream capitalist and communist society, while acknowledging the paradox that, at the same time, the artist, dependent on the market or the state, remains inexorably attached "by an umbilical cord of gold".
Kitsch, on the other hand, was the product of industrialization and the urbanization of the working class, a filler made for the consumption of the working class: a populace hungry for culture, but without the resources and education to enjoy cutting edge avant garde culture.
Greenberg writes, Kitsch, using for raw material the debased and academicized simulacra of genuine culture, welcomes and cultivates this insensibility. It is the source of its profits. Kitsch is mechanical and operates by formulas. Kitsch is vicarious experience and faked sensations.
Kitsch changes according to style, but remains always the same. Kitsch is the epitome of all that is spurious in the life of our times. Kitsch pretends to demand nothing of its customers except their money — not even their time. Art history, Abstract Expressionism and after[ edit ] Greenberg wrote several seminal essays that defined his views on art history in the 20th century.
In , Greenberg joined Partisan Review as an editor. He became art critic for the Nation in Hans Christian Andersen , Carl Spitzweg. Despite the pre-twentieth-century use of collage-like application techniques, some art authorities argue that collage, properly speaking, did not emerge until after , in conjunction with the early stages of modernism.
For example, the Tate Gallery 's online art glossary states that collage "was first used as an artists' technique in the twentieth century. The glued-on patches which Braque and Picasso added to their canvases offered a new perspective on painting when the patches "collided with the surface plane of the painting.
Furthermore, these chopped-up bits of newspaper introduced fragments of externally referenced meaning into the collision: "References to current events, such as the war in the Balkans, and to popular culture enriched the content of their art. According to some sources, Picasso was the first to use the collage technique in oil paintings. According to the Guggenheim Museum 's online article about collage, Braque took up the concept of collage itself before Picasso, applying it to charcoal drawings.
Picasso adopted collage immediately after and could be the first to use collage in paintings, as opposed to drawings : "It was Braque who purchased a roll of simulated oak-grain wallpaper and began cutting out pieces of the paper and attaching them to his charcoal drawings. Picasso immediately began to make his own experiments in the new medium. The Large Glass pushed the art of painting to radical new limits being part painting, part collage, part construction.
The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature poetry, art manifestoes, art theory , theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti war politic through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. Duchamp and several Dadaists are also associated with Surrealism, the movement that dominated European painting in the s and s.
Dada With war as a backdrop, many artists contributed to an artistic and literary movement hat became known as Dada. This movement emerged, in large part, in reaction to an insane spectacle of collective homicide. Dada was international in scope beginning in New York and Switzerland and spreading to other areas.
Dada was more off mindset or attitude than a singular identifiable style. The Dadaists believed reason and logic had been responsible for the unmitigated disaster of world war, and they concluded that the only route to salvation was through political anarchy, the irrational, and the intuitive. Thus, an element of absurdity is a cornerstone of Dada.
Dada is a term unrelated to the movement, choosing the word randomly from the dictionary. It satisfied the Dadaists desire for something irrational and nonsensical The pessimism and disgust of these artists surfaced in their disdain for convention and tradition, characterized by a concerted and sustained attempt to undermine cherished notions and assumptions about art. Dada was in its submissiveness, extraordinarily avian-garden and very liberating.
In addition to disdain, a current of humor and the whimsical, along with irreverence flows through much of the art. In its emphasis on the spontaneous and the intuitive, Dada had interest in the exploration of the subconscious that Freud promoted.
Images rising out of the subconscious mind had a truth of their own, they believed, independent of conventional vision. Jean Arp pioneered the use of chance in composing his images. Tiring of the Cubist look in his collages, Arp took sheets of paper, tore them roughly into squares, haphazardly dropped them to a sheet of paper on the floor, and glued them into the resulting arrangement.
The rectangular shapes unified the design, which Arp no doubt enhanced by adjusting the random arrangement to a quasi-grid. Even with some altering, chance had introduced an imbalance that seemed to Arp to store to his work a certain mysterious vitality he wanted.
Collage Arranged According to the Laws of Chance is a work done using this method. The operations of chance were for Dadaists a crucial part of this kind of improvisation. Chance could restore to a work of art its primeval magic power and find a way back to the immediacy it had lost through contact with Classicism. Such works, he insisted, were created free from any consideration of either good or bad taste, qualities shaped by a society he and other Dada artists found bankrupt.
Decamp did not select the object for exhibition for its aesthetic qualities. Mute with his own hands made the fountain or not has no importance. He chose it. He took an ordinary article of life, placed it so that its useful significance separated under a new title and point of view — created a new thought for that object. Decamp and the generations of artists after him profoundly influenced by his art and especially his attitude considered life and art matters of chance and choice freed from the conventions of society and tradition.
Within his approach to art and life, each act was individual and unique. This philosophy of utter freedom for artists was fundamental to the history of art in the 20th century. Decamp spent much of World War I in New York, inspiring a group of American artists and collectors with his radical rethinking of the role of artists and of the nature of art. Dada spread throughout much of Western Europe, arriving as early as in Berlin, where it soon took on an activist political edge, particularly in response to the economic, social, and political chaos in the city after World War l.
The Berlin artists developed a new intensity for a technique called photometer pasting parts of many images together into one image. This technique had been in popular and private culture and was used on postcards long before the 20th century.
A few years earlier, the Cubists had named the process collage.
Greenberg married in , had a son the next year, and was divorced the year after that. Art History Research Paper Topics: The Middle Ages and the Renaissance Day and night, life and death, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance — the contrast between these two epochs amazes everyone who is eager to learn more about them. Decamp did not select the object for exhibition for its aesthetic qualities. Within his approach to art and life, each act was individual and unique.
Art History Research Paper Topics: 20th Century In the 20th century, the world went crazy: wars, revolutions, demonstrations, space exploration, etc. In its emphasis on the spontaneous and the intuitive, Dada had interest in the exploration of the subconscious that Freud promoted. It is perhaps fitting that he died in as a result of injuries sustained in a bar fight. During the next few years, Greenberg travelled the U. What determined the main principles of Medieval art?
Have a try with our Futurism research paper. He became art critic for the Nation in Key changes in methodology in paintings in the epoch of Impressionism. Dada With war as a backdrop, many artists contributed to an artistic and literary movement hat became known as Dada. The technique of wood collage is also sometimes combined with painting and other media in a single work of art. Driftwood is of course sometimes ambiguous: while a piece of driftwood may once have been a piece of worked wood - for example, part of a ship - it may be so weathered by salt and sea that its past functional identity is nearly or completely obscured.
A Surrealist group developed in Britain and, according to Breton, their London International Surrealist Exhibition was a high-water mark of the period and became the model for international exhibitions. C8 C69 ISBN: An up-to-date, engaging survey of the most important revolution in early twentieth-century art. One Bauhaus teacher who had a lasting legacy on artists was Josef Labels Many of these artists used collage techniques in their work.
The rectangular shapes unified the design, which Arp no doubt enhanced by adjusting the random arrangement to a quasi-grid. Early precedents[ edit ] Techniques of collage were first used at the time of the invention of paper in China , around BC.
Metaphysical painting —s Influenced by the work of late 19th-century German philosophers, metaphysical painters sought to create enigmatic scenes which beckoned viewers to interpret a meaning based on symbols, suggestions, and impressions, thus foreshadowing the Surrealist paintings of the following decades.
Composition in Red, Blue, and Yellow, is one of many paintings Mandarin created locking color planes into a grid intersecting vertical and horizontal lines. Art History Essay Topics: Argumentative and Analytical Surprisingly, analytical thinking and argumentative strategies can be applied to art. Oxford University Press , Decamp spent much of World War I in New York, inspiring a group of American artists and collectors with his radical rethinking of the role of artists and of the nature of art. Depression-era art s From to , art in America reflected and embodied the despair associated with the Great Depression, often raising social issues and concerns of the public.