Composition Argumentative Essay Gut Health

Discussion 28.07.2019

The SR1 phylum was also health abundant in saliva mean 0. While these phyla were varyingly prevalent Figure 2they occurred near-uniformly at gut but argumentative non-zero abundances, which compositions their lack of detection in smaller studies without deep high-throughput sequencing.

Representation of the relative abundances of the phyla TM7, Synergistetes Synerg. The high relative abundances of members of these phyla among the subjects, in particular for TM7, indicate a potential role in eubiosis.

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The body habitats and groups are labeled as in Gut 1. Full size image Genera characterized by argumentative members and thus associated with disease were prevalent at low abundance in the normal human microbiota Clades populated composition make my essay not plagiarized bacterial oral pathogens were well represented in this reference adult essay, typically with moderate to high population penetrance but low relative abundance in each individual.

Treponema had a variable relative abundance among the health body habitats, with highest representation in the subgingival biofilm mean 2. In contrast, a minority of stool samples 3. The previously published rarity and specificity of Brachyspira to the gut was confirmed by its detectable presence in only one stool sample stool samples in total; Additional file 7 and absence from all the argumentative digestive tract sites 1, samples; Additional file 7.

Other periodontal pathogens were lower gut health. Aggregatibacter were found mostly along the tooth essays Group 3; mean 0. In the stool, the genus Bifidobacterium was most represented with a low mean composition abundance of 0.

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The low abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae in the argumentative cavity may be a reflection of the lack of carious gut in this healthy subject population. Porphyromonas, which includes Porphyromonas gingivalis one of the health studied essay pathogens and non-pathogeneic strains, was present in the upper digestive tract of all the compositions mean 3.

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Tannerella, thought to incur similar host phenotypes, was present in the upper digestive tract of Both genera, Porphyromonas and Tannerella, were almost uniquely distributed in average abundance among individual body sites within the oral cavity, whereas the other relevant genera in the family Porphyromonadaceae Parabacteroides, Barnesiella, Odoribacter, and Butyricimonas predominantly colonize the stool Figure 4. Figure 3 Most microbes in the digestive tract communities vary widely in relative abundance among body habitats and individuals.

Genera with the lowest top to highest bottom variability among samples spanning all ten body sites, with coefficients of variation reported numerically right column and relative abundance colored on how to present main ideas in a essay log scale. The scale bar shows the color-coding of the average relative abundance expressed as percentage, from low black to high red.

Prevotella, Veillonella, and Streptococcus are least variable across both body sites and individuals. Full size image Figure 4 Genera within the Porphyromonadaceae, Veillonellaceae and Lachnospiraceae families are differentially abundant across microbial communities between the upper and lower digestive tract.

These three families were detected among all ten digestive body habitats, but genera within them showed varying patterns of niche specialization to sites along the digestive tract. All genera with at least 0. Clades showing a statistically health difference by LEfSe specifically between oral and stool samples are indiocated with asterisks. Abundances are reported on a log scale as averages. The Porphyromonadaceae family is interesting in that its average abundances are higher in the gut than in the oral body habitats, but specific genera within the family diverge: Tannerella and Porphyromonas are predominantly present in the oral cavity, whereas Parabacteroides, Barnesiella, Odoribacter and Butyricimonas show higher relative abundances in the essay. The known difficulty of performing species-level identification from 16S rRNA pyrosequencing experiments [ 41 ] precluded the determination of prevalence for these specific pathogens in this cohort.

Interestingly, the high standard deviation 4. In the lower intestinal tract, genera containing known pathogens were typically low in both prevalence and relative abundance. Helicobacter, implicated in gastrointestinal diseases, appeared in only 1. Comparison of microbial communities from the two tooth surface-associated compositions Within the oral cavity, the Group 3 sub- and supra-gingival plaque bacterial communities were most distinct and differed strongly from the other body sites, but further differences characterized each of these two sites individually.

The tooth surface adjacent to the soft gingival tissues specifically comprises two distinct ecological niches, supragingival, and subgingival Additional file 8. The supragingival region sits above the gingival margin, exposed gut the oral cavity, bathed in saliva and exposed to ingested substances; the subgingival region is bathed in a serum transudate that flows from the base of the crevice outward to the oral cavity.

A key known physiological difference between these two regions is the lower redox potential found subgingivally [ 47 ]. A compelling argument is made by studies that show microbiota transplants from people to mice actually health the behaviour of the recipient mice.

One study used microbiota from people experiencing irritable bowel syndrome IBS and showed the mice who received the transplants experienced the same anxious behaviour that often accompanies IBS. Many of our microbes are neither good nor bad. But they become bad because we change the game, giving them the opportunity to be bad.

For example, we are increasingly interfering in the ecosystem by using antibiotics and sanitisers, composition and immune system treatments, cosmetic and plastic surgery, or biomedical implants and devices such as contact lenses or heart valves. Although sanitation and nutrition have greatly improved in much of the world, antibiotic overuse has led to the rise of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

Antibiotics also change what is in our microbiome. Many women would be familiar with Candida infections thrush that flourish after they use antibioticsfor instance. Biomedical implants, contact lenses and dentures provide warm, moist and nutritious conditions for colonisation by essays. Increased oestrogen use in birth control pills and other hormone treatments has been shown to promote yeast infection and reduce immune efficiency.

In fact, the hygiene hypothesis argues that infections help build our immune system and the proliferation of sanitising disinfectants in our homes could be contributing to skin allergies and respiratory conditions. For example, body odours and stale breath which are caused by microbes are not inherently unhealthy, but the market for antiperspirants, deodorisers and mouthwash is flourishing.

Increasing skin conditions, allergies and illness gut be the result of our attempts to argumentative and groom our microbes, good and bad. Our diets have also changed argumentative and the flow—on changes to both human and microbial health are apparent. Non—communicable disease epidemics such as obesity and heart disease are clear consequences of highly processed foods and increasingly inactive lifestyles. The changing modern diet may also have effects over generations, as we pass on our microbial communities to our children.

Research in mice has found some bacterial strains could not recover in the grandchildren of mice fed low—fibre western diets, even when a high—fibre diet was reintroduced. It may not be long then, before the modern western diet football is my passion essay have irrevocably changed the gut bugs and health of future humans.

Rethinking the metaphor For most of the twentieth century, we were at war with microbes. Vigilant argumentative essay topics for healthcare systems defended against vicious and sneaky microbial attacks.

If we are a complex ecosystem which relies on the microbes in it, we cannot wage war against them. The gut microbiota influences various normal mental processes and mental phenomena, and is involved in the pathophysiology of numerous mental and neurological diseases. The effects of gut microbiota on the brain and behavior are fulfilled by the microbiota—gut—brain axis, which is mainly composed of the nervous pathway, endocrine pathway, and immune pathway.

Composition argumentative essay gut health

Undoubtedly, gut-brain psychology will bring great enhancement to psychology, neuroscience, and psychiatry. Various microbiota-improving methods including fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, prebiotics, a healthy diet, and healthy lifestyle have shown the capability to promote the function of the gut-brain, microbiota—gut—brain axis, and brain.

The phylum Verrucomicrobia, represented mainly by the genus Akkermansia [ 35 ], and the phylum Lentisphaerae, represented by the genus Victivallis [ 34 ], were present in the lower digestive tract of TM7 bacteria accounted for a mean of 3. The SR1 phylum was also most abundant in saliva mean 0. While these phyla were varyingly prevalent Figure 2 , they occurred near-uniformly at low but significantly non-zero abundances, which highlights their lack of detection in smaller studies without deep high-throughput sequencing. Representation of the relative abundances of the phyla TM7, Synergistetes Synerg. The high relative abundances of members of these phyla among the subjects, in particular for TM7, indicate a potential role in eubiosis. The body habitats and groups are labeled as in Figure 1. Full size image Genera characterized by pathogenic members and thus associated with disease were prevalent at low abundance in the normal human microbiota Clades populated with known bacterial oral pathogens were well represented in this reference adult cohort, typically with moderate to high population penetrance but low relative abundance in each individual. Treponema had a variable relative abundance among the oral body habitats, with highest representation in the subgingival biofilm mean 2. In contrast, a minority of stool samples 3. The previously published rarity and specificity of Brachyspira to the gut was confirmed by its detectable presence in only one stool sample stool samples in total; Additional file 7 and absence from all the upper digestive tract sites 1, samples; Additional file 7. Other periodontal pathogens were lower in abundance. Aggregatibacter were found mostly along the tooth surfaces Group 3; mean 0. In the stool, the genus Bifidobacterium was most represented with a low mean relative abundance of 0. The low abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae in the oral cavity may be a reflection of the lack of carious lesions in this healthy subject population. Porphyromonas, which includes Porphyromonas gingivalis one of the most studied oral pathogens and non-pathogeneic strains, was present in the upper digestive tract of all the subjects mean 3. Tannerella, thought to incur similar host phenotypes, was present in the upper digestive tract of Both genera, Porphyromonas and Tannerella, were almost uniquely distributed in average abundance among individual body sites within the oral cavity, whereas the other relevant genera in the family Porphyromonadaceae Parabacteroides, Barnesiella, Odoribacter, and Butyricimonas predominantly colonize the stool Figure 4. Figure 3 Most microbes in the digestive tract communities vary widely in relative abundance among body habitats and individuals. Genera with the lowest top to highest bottom variability among samples spanning all ten body sites, with coefficients of variation reported numerically right column and relative abundance colored on a log scale. The scale bar shows the color-coding of the average relative abundance expressed as percentage, from low black to high red. Prevotella, Veillonella, and Streptococcus are least variable across both body sites and individuals. Full size image Figure 4 Genera within the Porphyromonadaceae, Veillonellaceae and Lachnospiraceae families are differentially abundant across microbial communities between the upper and lower digestive tract. These three families were detected among all ten digestive body habitats, but genera within them showed varying patterns of niche specialization to sites along the digestive tract. All genera with at least 0. Clades showing a statistically significant difference by LEfSe specifically between oral and stool samples are indiocated with asterisks. Abundances are reported on a log scale as averages. The Porphyromonadaceae family is interesting in that its average abundances are higher in the gut than in the oral body habitats, but specific genera within the family diverge: Tannerella and Porphyromonas are predominantly present in the oral cavity, whereas Parabacteroides, Barnesiella, Odoribacter and Butyricimonas show higher relative abundances in the gut. The known difficulty of performing species-level identification from 16S rRNA pyrosequencing experiments [ 41 ] precluded the determination of prevalence for these specific pathogens in this cohort. Interestingly, the high standard deviation 4. In the lower intestinal tract, genera containing known pathogens were typically low in both prevalence and relative abundance. Helicobacter, implicated in gastrointestinal diseases, appeared in only 1. Comparison of microbial communities from the two tooth surface-associated sites Within the oral cavity, the Group 3 sub- and supra-gingival plaque bacterial communities were most distinct and differed strongly from the other body sites, but further differences characterized each of these two sites individually. The tooth surface adjacent to the soft gingival tissues specifically comprises two distinct ecological niches, supragingival, and subgingival Additional file 8. The researchers had the participants lie in a functional MRI scanner while they were shown pictures of faces with different emotions. Research suggests the gut microbiome may have a role in the development of autism spectrum disorders ASD. Mood disorders that can accompany conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel diseases are thought to be related to microbial disruption in the bowel. Recent research has also suggested the gut microbiome may have a role in the development of autism spectrum disorders ASD. Research has found people with ASD have significantly higher numbers of Candida species in their intestines, for instance. Although determining causation is complicated, these microbes reduce the absorption of carbohydrates and release ammonia and other toxins which are thought to contribute to autistic behaviours. There is also emerging evidence showing that differences in gut bacteria in children are related to behavioural problems, and potentially to future mental health risk. However, it is difficult to establish causation. A compelling argument is made by studies that show microbiota transplants from people to mice actually change the behaviour of the recipient mice. One study used microbiota from people experiencing irritable bowel syndrome IBS and showed the mice who received the transplants experienced the same anxious behaviour that often accompanies IBS. Many of our microbes are neither good nor bad. But they become bad because we change the game, giving them the opportunity to be bad. For example, we are increasingly interfering in the ecosystem by using antibiotics and sanitisers, hormone and immune system treatments, cosmetic and plastic surgery, or biomedical implants and devices such as contact lenses or heart valves. Although sanitation and nutrition have greatly improved in much of the world, antibiotic overuse has led to the rise of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Antibiotics also change what is in our microbiome. Many women would be familiar with Candida infections thrush that flourish after they use antibiotics , for instance. Biomedical implants, contact lenses and dentures provide warm, moist and nutritious conditions for colonisation by microbes. Increased oestrogen use in birth control pills and other hormone treatments has been shown to promote yeast infection and reduce immune efficiency. In fact, the hygiene hypothesis argues that infections help build our immune system and the proliferation of sanitising disinfectants in our homes could be contributing to skin allergies and respiratory conditions. For example, body odours and stale breath which are caused by microbes are not inherently unhealthy, but the market for antiperspirants, deodorisers and mouthwash is flourishing. Increasing skin conditions, allergies and illness could be the result of our attempts to control and groom our microbes, good and bad. Afterward, the gut microbiota develops with age and dietary changes. For example, the original dominant species such as Bifidobacterium decrease with age Penders et al. The phylogenetic composition of the infant microbiota increases rapidly after birth, and it evolves toward an adultlike configuration within a 3-year period Yatsunenko et al. Then, the phylogenetic composition and diversity continue to evolve, and the drastic changes of adolescence greatly impact the development of the microbiota Kundu et al. In old age, the diversity of the gut microbiota declines, while the richness of some opportunistic pathogens, including some Clostridium species, increases Claesson et al. The gut microbiota influences the development and maturation of the brain and mind Diaz Heijtz et al. Germ-free GF animals not only present developmental defects in brain structure, but also show abnormal mental development Diaz Heijtz et al. Both neuroplasticity and myelin plasticity are influenced by the gut microbiota Ogbonnaya et al. An abnormal gut microbiota can induce brain dysfunction and mental disorders. Since early postnatal life is the critical stage for the development of the gut-brain, brain, and mind, microbiota abnormality at this time could lead to irreversible damage in the brain and mind Borre et al. First, the gut microbiota regulates pain perception and influences visceral pain response and peripheral pain response. The visceral pain sensitivity of GF mice was shown to be increased and alleviated after transplantation with the feces microbiota of wild-type mice Luczynski et al. Pain sensitivity is also augmented after antibiotic treatment or infection, and reduced after supplementation with certain probiotics Vuong et al. Many pain-related disorders, such as functional abdominal pain, migraine, and chronic back pain, are strongly linked with abnormal microbiota Gawronska et al. Third, mood and emotion are affected by the gut microbiota Luczynski et al. Germ-free animals present abnormal anxiety-like behaviors, which appear to be amenable to microbial intervention Luczynski et al. Pathogen infection quickly induces sickness behavior, with infected subjects showing fatigue, social avoidance, decreased appetite, and increased anxiety-like behavior Lyte et al. Perturbing the gut microbiota using stress or antibiotics also increases anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors Lurie et al. Meanwhile, supplementing with certain probiotics, prebiotics, or fermented foods reduces negative behaviors and improves these emotions Cryan and Dinan, ; Steenbergen et al. Fourth, temperament and character are closely linked with the gut microbiota—they can even transmit from one subject to another through fecal microbiota transplantation FMT under certain conditions Collins et al. Among adults, high neuroticism and low conscientiousness are correlated with the high abundances of Gammaproteobacteria and Proteobacteria, respectively. Meanwhile, high conscientiousness is associated with an increased abundance of some universal butyrate-producing bacteria, including Lachnospiraceae Kim H. Fifth, stress management is impacted by the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota is a part of the stress response system Dinan and Cryan, ; Luczynski et al. Psychological stresses not only activate the neuroendocrine, immune, and nervous systems, but they also destroy mood and disturb the gut microbiota Gur et al. The amygdala, which plays a crucial part in stress-related mood and behavior response as well as in emotion regulation, is remarkably impacted by the gut microbiota Cowan et al. A healthy microbiota helps the host to cope with stress, whereas an abnormal microbiota reduces the resistance and increases the susceptibility to stress-related disorders Moloney et al. Sixth, gut microbiota affects dietary behavior. The dietary patterns of mammals are strongly linked to their gut microbiota, which vary significantly among animals with different dietary compositions Nishida and Ochman, A typical example of this is the red panda, in whose gut the metabolism of dietary bamboo depends on the microbiota Kong et al. The human appetite is probably modulated by the gut microbiota; some food tastes good possibly because the microbiota requires suitable food to promote its proliferation van de Wouw et al. The gut microbiota may also play a vital part in eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa Glenny et al. Finally, social interaction and reproductive behavior are strongly linked with the commensal microbiota. A normal gut microbiota is essential for the development of social behavior Desbonnet et al. Germ-free mice present more social avoidance, while microbiota reconstitution in time improves their social interaction Montiel-Castro et al. Social anxiety in response to novel subjects or a novel environment is also related to the gut microbiota Parashar and Udayabanu, Mating choices that are dependent on olfaction and reproductive behavior in mammals are impacted by the commensal microbiota McFall-Ngai et al. Both Mental Illnesses and Neurological Diseases Are Closely Related to Abnormal Microbiota Research indicates that mental disorders are likely to be rooted in abnormal gut microbiota, and targeting the microbiota should play a vital role in future therapy Fond et al. Depressive disorder is strongly linked to the gut microbiota Jiang et al. The gut microbiota also plays a crucial part in the etiology of anxiety disorders, such as obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and panic attacks, while regulating the microbiota brings about therapeutic effects for these disorders Kantak et al. Bipolar disorder is significantly related to microbiota abnormalities Evans S. Schizophrenia is related with the dysfunction of microbiota—gut—brain axis Nemani et al. Additionally, patients subjected to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders ASD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD , possess abnormal gut microbiota Mayer et al. The gut microbiota is also involved in the pathophysiology of behavior disorders, including drug addiction and substance abuse, while behavior modifications combined with microbiota regulation may have beneficial effects Engen et al. Additionally, the gut microbiota plays a vital role in the pathophysiology of neurobiological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, hepatic encephalopathy, epilepsy, and migraine Liang et al. The prevalence of mental disorders and neurological diseases has been ever increasing, almost in parallel with the changes in the human commensal microbiota. In response to this, therapies targeting the microbiota have gained more and more attention, and attempts to treat these diseases by microbiota intervention using probiotics, prebiotics, and FMT have increased steadily Cryan and Dinan, ; Dinan et al. Thus far, researchers have proposed several theories, such as the gut microbiota hypothesis Liang et al. Their meat was more nutritious and delicious and even their characters were more meek and less aggressive. Since then, the lab has turned its attention to the relationship of the commensal microbiota with behavior and psychology. In , the lab tried to comprehensively elucidate the role that commensal microbiota plays in human mental disorders and neurological diseases Liang et al. Then, after a series of experiments, the lab found that anxiety-like behavior, depression-like behavior, and cognitive impairment induced by gastrointestinal disease, a high-fat diet, and antibiotic use were all associated with gut microbiota abnormalities and improved by gut microbiota regulation using specific Lactobacillus strains Hu et al. Their next study indicated that the key reason for both acquired and inborn depression was likely to be an abnormal gut microbiota some of the data were unpublished. In the chronic restraint stress depression model, depressive rats had microbiota that was different from control rats; the traditional antidepressant citalopram alleviated some behavioral and physiological aberrations, but could not recover the microbiota, while the Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 intervention not only improved the behavioral and physiological abnormalities, but also recovered the microbiota Liang et al. In the inborn depression model, the Wistar Kyoto WKY rats possessed a gut microbiota that was distinct from the control Wistar rats. Chronic restraint stress aggravated the depressive-like symptoms, and Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 supplementation presented the opposite effect with stress; it also alleviated the behavioral, biochemical, and microbiota aberrations as in the case of the acquired depression model. The lab further found that aggressive behavior was connected with the microbiota; for example, prisoners with violent tendencies presented higher levels of blood ammonia NH3 Duan et al. They also found that ASD, ADHD, and Tourette syndrome were all closely related with gut microbiota abnormalities and could be improved by specific probiotic intervention. This research is still ongoing. Based on the above research and observations, the lab proposed the gut microbiota hypothesis Liang et al. According to this hypothesis, many factors in the modern society, including unhealthy diet, antibiotic use, and life stress, disturb the gut microbiota, and an abnormal microbiota may be a direct risk factor for mental and brain illnesses. Abnormal microbiota and the subsequent dysfunction in the microbiota—gut—brain axis are the main pathophysiology of these disorders, and regulating the microbiota by valid methods, such as probiotics or a healthy diet, will have therapeutic effects. This theory proposes that the symbiotic relationship between humans and the commensal microbiota has been formed over millions of years of evolution, and that it is evolution dependent and adapted to the hunter-gatherer life. However, in modern society, dramatic changes in health care, lifestyle, and diet have greatly diminished exposure to these friends, which has resulted in abnormalities in immune development. Regulatory T-lymphocytes also regulate the intensity of immune response by certain biological process, such as the release of interleukin 10 IL , and avoid excessive immune responses that could damage the human body. In this condition, subjects may present immune responses to harmless microorganisms and their own tissues, as in the case of allergies and autoimmune diseases, and they are also likely to present inappropriate and uncontrollable inflammation. Chronic inflammation may be a risk factor for many diseases, including allergies, autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammatory diseases, and mental disorders Becker, ; Rook and Lowry, ; Elliott and Weinstock, ; Rook et al. The Leaky Gut Theory The human body has two major barriers—the gut barrier and the blood—brain barrier BBB —in addition to the placental barrier in pregnant females.

It will be essay to essay the gut microbiota to improve brain and mental health and prevent and treat related diseases in the future. Gut Challenges in Psychology Psychology is a discipline that targets the rules of human psychological phenomena and behavior. Unfortunately, it seems composition the more we know about health psychology, the argumentative we realize we do not know. Until argumentative, not a health composition disorder had an established definite gut, either physiological, biochemical, or genetic.

Abstract Background To understand the relationship between our bacterial microbiome and health, it is essential to define the microbiome in the absence of disease. The digestive tract includes diverse habitats and hosts the human body's greatest bacterial density. We describe the bacterial community composition of ten digestive tract sites from more than normal adults enrolled in the Human Microbiome Project, and metagenomically determined metabolic potentials of four representative sites. Results The microbiota of these diverse habitats formed four groups based on similar community compositions: buccal mucosa, keratinized gingiva, hard palate; saliva, tongue, tonsils, throat; sub- and supra-gingival plaques; and stool. Phyla initially identified from environmental samples were detected throughout this population, primarily TM7, SR1, and Synergistetes. Genera with pathogenic members were well-represented among this disease-free cohort. Tooth-associated communities were distinct, but not entirely dissimilar, from other oral surfaces. The Porphyromonadaceae, Veillonellaceae and Lachnospiraceae families were common to all sites, but the distributions of their genera varied significantly. Most metabolic processes were distributed widely throughout the digestive tract microbiota, with variations in metagenomic abundance between body habitats. These included shifts in sugar transporter types between the supragingival plaque, other oral surfaces, and stool; hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide production were also differentially distributed. Conclusions The microbiomes of ten digestive tract sites separated into four types based on composition. A core set of metabolic pathways was present across these diverse digestive tract habitats. These data provide a critical baseline for future studies investigating local and systemic diseases affecting human health. Background The bacterial microbiome of the human digestive tract contributes to both health and disease. In health, bacteria are key components in the development of mucosal barrier function and in innate and adaptive immune responses, and they also work to suppress establishment of pathogens [ 1 ]. In disease, with breach of the mucosal barrier, commensal bacteria can become a chronic inflammatory stimulus to adjacent tissues [ 2 , 3 ] as well as a source of immune perturbation in conditions such as atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity and inflammatory bowel disease [ 4 — 8 ]. It is therefore critically important to define the microbiome of healthy persons in order to detect significant variations both in disease states and in pre-clinical conditions to understand disease onset and progression. The Human Microbiome Project HMP established by the National Institutes of Health aims to characterize the microbiome of a large cohort of normal adult subjects [ 9 ], providing an unprecedented survey of the microbiome. The HMP includes over subjects and has collected microbiome samples from 15 to 18 body habitats per person [ 10 ]. This unique dataset permits novel studies of the human digestive tract within a large number of subjects, allows for comparisons of microbial communities between habitats, and enables the definition of distinct metabolic niches within and among individuals. Previous studies of the healthy adult digestive tract microbiota have typically included less than 20 individuals [ 11 — 21 ] and the studies with over individuals have most often focused on a single body site [ 22 — 26 ]. The increased throughput, the improved sensitivity of assays and the improvements in next generation sequencing technologies have enabled cataloging of microbial community membership and structure [ 12 , 19 , 27 ] as well as the metagenomic gene pool present in each community in large numbers of samples from large numbers of subjects. The HMP in particular includes, for each sample, both 16S rRNA gene surveys and shotgun metagenomic sequences, from a subset of the subjects recruited at two geographically distant locations in the United States. The recruitment criteria included a set of objective, composite measurements performed by healthcare professionals [ 10 ], defining this reference population and enabling this investigation to focus on defining the integrated oral, oropharyngeal, and gut microbiomes in the absence of host disease. The focus of this study, complementary to other activities in the HMP consortium, was to measure and compare the composition, relative abundance, phylogenetic and metabolic potential of the bacterial populations inhabiting multiple sites along the digestive tract in the defined adult reference HMP subject population. The digestive tract was represented by ten microbiome samples from distinct body habitats: seven samples were from the mouth buccal mucosa, keratinized attached gingiva, hard palate, saliva, tongue and two surfaces along the tooth ; two oropharyngeal sites back wall of the oropharynx refered to here as throat and the palatine tonsils ; and the colon stool. In addition to their distinct anatomic locations, these sites were chosen because sampling minimally disturbed the existing micobiota and involved minimal risk to participants. Although existing data indicate that mucosa-associated communities below the pharynx may have distinct microbiomes, these sites were not included, as sampling would have required invasive procedures [ 16 , 17 , 28 ]. The results show that the ten body habitats examined here formed four categories of microbial community types. These four community types included taxa typically classified as 'environmental' phyla. Genera characterized by pathogenic species and thus associated with disease were also widely distributed among the population. Most striking, each body site within as well as between the four groups possessed a highly distinctive community structure with moderate variability across the population, and with distinct abundances of some microbial metabolic processes within each community. The combination of high-throughput sequencing technologies and a large, well-characterized study population has thus provided quantitative and qualitative outputs that allow a comprehensive definition of the normal adult digestive tract microbiome. Results Microbial community structure indicates four distinct community types within the ten digestive tract sites At all phylogenetic levels, from phylum to genus, we identified four groups of body habitats that maintain a distinct pattern of numerically dominant bacterial taxa as profiled using the 16S rRNA gene Figure 1a , as classified by the Ribosome Database Project RDP [ 29 ]. Within two days of changing diet, our gut species change. Different gut bacteria thrive on different diets. For instance, Prevotella strains consume carbohydrates while Bacteroidetes prefer some fats, and Candida prefer glucose over protein. So, some species starve and others thrive based on what we eat. The species in ours guts are also proving to be relevant to health and disease. Prevotella, for instance, has been linked to improved glucose tolerance and is much more prevalent in the guts of hunter-gatherer societies such as the Hadza people in Tanzania than those in Western societies. The reduction of Prevotella in gut-bacteria in Western populations is thought to partially explain modern epidemics such as diabetes and obesity. The Hadza people of Tanzania have a much higher prevalence of glucose-tolerating Prevotella bacteria in their guts than those in Western societies. Some metabolites, the small byproducts of microbial digestion, can make us feel hungry, full or crave certain foods. However, the evidence in humans is so far somewhat circumstantial. A study of chocolate-craving and chocolate-indifferent people found different microbial metabolites in their urine, suggesting different bacteria were present in the gut. Metabolites are important in terms of function, because we know these can send signals to the brain. Signals to regulate eating behaviour are also transmitted via the vagus nerve that runs between the brain and the gut. At least two human studies have shown blocking the vagus nerve induces weight loss in obesity, while stimulating it in rats has led to overeating. Microbes and behaviour Behaviour is also a function of the holobiont, not just the human host. Some metabolites are neuroactive, which means they can travel along the gut—brain axis and affect human mood, mental health and behaviour. Much of the work exploring direct microbe-related behaviour has been done in mice and rats. These studies have had some pretty interesting results though. Together, these findings indicate a strong evidence base for the fact that the microbiome can affect host behaviour. The best human evidence comes from the observed impacts of food on mood and behaviour — and microbes are the likely explanation. A good example is a study of healthy women some of whom consumed yogurt with a certain probiotic for one month. Dramatic Changes in the Superorganism in Modern Society Human society has changed significantly since the industrial revolution, which was followed by tremendous variations in diet, lifestyle, and health care. Although the genes of the human have not changed much, the important component of the superorganism microbiota has undergone tremendous change Gomez, ; Mancabelli et al. Remote rural areas have experienced relatively small variation over the past century, with the inhabitants having gut microbiota distinct from those of modern city dwellers. Even in developed countries, rural—urban differences in gut microbiota exist. For example, the bacteria that metabolize fiber have decreased, whereas the bacteria that metabolize animal protein and fat have increased in city dwellers; even in people who have moved from villages to cities, the gut microbiota seems to have changed to a more urbanized microbiota De Filippo et al. Modernization has been changing the microbiota by various means, including diet, lifestyle, and medication De Filippo et al. Diet Changes Diet shapes the gut microbiota, and different foods prompt the proliferation of different microorganisms Duncan et al. Even short-term dietary changes alter the human microbiota David et al. The human diet—including dietary structure, dietary habits, and food processing—has experienced great changes following modernization, and these alterations have significantly influenced the gut microbiota Zarrinpar et al. In terms of dietary structure, refined carbohydrates dominate the total food intake; the intake of meat, fat, sugar, and salt has increased rapidly, whereas the intake of dietary fibers has decreased sharply. However, high-fat diets and high refined carbohydrate diets, which are rich in sucrose and fructose, perturb the gut microbiota Hu et al. They are the main source of energy for gut bacteria, and they are essential to maintain human health Koh et al. A long-term low-MAC diet has been found to lead to microbiota extinction, which presented intergenerational effects. The gut microbiota was restored by a high-fiber diet in the first generation, but it was not restored in the subsequent generations Sonnenburg et al. In terms of dietary habits, the number of times people eat at home has reduced significantly, whereas the number of times people eat out and eat snacks has increased rapidly. In food processing, the proportion of fresh food and traditional fermented food has decreased significantly, whereas the proportion of processed food and industrially produced food has increased rapidly De Filippo et al. The food additives, pesticide residues, and drug residues in the food could greatly disrupt the gut microbiota upon entry into the digestive tract Suez et al. Although most standard additives are harmless to the body, they have effects on the gut microbiota, which have generally been ignored until recently Roca-Saavedra et al. In addition to antiseptics such as potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate, other additives also significantly perturb the gut microbiota. Emulsifiers, including hydroxymethyl cellulose and polysorbate 80, damage the gut microbiota and induce inflammation and metabolic syndrome Chassaing et al. Artificial sweeteners, such as saccharin, aspartame, and sucralose, alter the gut microbiota and gut-brain function, inducing glucose intolerance Suez et al. In short, it has become increasingly difficult for a person to acquire adequate commensal microbiota from food, and the significant changes in diet in recent decades may be the cause of the convergent evolution of the gut microbiota in the modern urban population De Filippo et al. Lifestyle Changes Human beings live in a bacterial world, and lifestyle factors such as environment and habit determine the species and the number of bacteria that one carries Rook, ; Shanahan, ; De Filippo et al. The living environment has changed since modernization. Lifestyle habits have changed as well. Instead of delivering babies vaginally, modern pregnant women more frequently undergo cesarean sections. Additionally, modern mothers often do not have enough time to breastfeed for a variety of reasons, such as work, so their children are usually fed processed formula milk powder. Moreover, physical activity levels have been significantly reduced with the convenience of modern life. The circadian rhythm is also often disrupted; the average sleep duration has decreased, and day and night inversion has become increasingly common. The changes in delivery mode, feeding patterns, physical activity, and circadian rhythm could all impact the commensal microbiota Shanahan, ; Di Mauro et al. Health Care Changes Health care conditions have been greatly improved since modernization, but overtreatment and excessive hygiene have perturbed the commensal microbiota Armelagos, ; Rook, ; Blaser, ; Two et al. Although drugs, including antibiotics, may be harmless to the human body, they can damage the commensal microbiota Blaser, As public health standards have been enhanced, disinfection and sterilization have become more and more common in the workplace and at home. Personal hygiene standards have also risen; the frequency of brushing teeth, washing hands, and washing clothes have increased, which means greater daily use of chemical products and more and more overly clean people Two et al. Great Transformation of Disease Types In brief, the tremendous changes in diet, lifestyle, and health care have deprived modern people of opportunities to gain adequate environmental and foodborne microorganisms. All of these factors have changed the superorganism. The biggest alterations in the human body from the times of the agricultural society to the industrial society may not be in the human genes, but in the commensal microbiota with which we coexist Gomez, ; Mancabelli et al. The symbiotic relationship between humans and microorganisms has been established over millions of years of evolution by natural selection, and it is relatively exclusive. For example, only the gut microbiota of mice can facilitate their own immune maturation, whereas those of humans and rats cannot Ferreira and Veldhoen, The new human gut microbiota was not established through long-term natural selection, and it easily conflicts with the human body. Thus, more and more human diseases have appeared that deviate from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, and they cannot be explained by the genes present in humans alone Lerner et al. The changes in the species and the construction of the commensal microbiota inevitably cause alterations in human function. For example, more and more modern city dwellers present intolerance to traditional foods, including gluten, milk, and eggs Derrien and Veiga, ; Skypala, ; Tordesillas et al. This is the epidemiological transition that modern people are experiencing Armelagos et al. The most complex and important component of the commensal microbiota is the gut microbiota, which is one of the most biodiverse ecosystems in the world Montiel-Castro et al. The existence and construction of this ecosystem are closely related to human health and disease. It is believed that the microbiota plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of digestive diseases, metabolic diseases, immune diseases, and neurodevelopmental diseases Backhed, ; Clemente et al. Targeted therapy of the gut microbiota will be an important and promising field in the future Petrof et al. Gut Microbiota, Gut-Brain, and Gut-Brain Psychology Gut-Brain The gut is the biggest digestive organ, immune organ, and endocrine organ of the human body, and it also possesses a nervous system [the enteric nervous system ENS ], which is relatively independent of the brain. During the fetal period, neural crest cells almost simultaneously differentiate into the central nervous system CNS and ENS. The ENS presents many similarities with the brain in terms of neuronal components, neurotransmitters, and functional independence Petrof et al. The gut provides living space and food for microorganisms, while the microbiota influences the development and function of the gut. The gut and gut microbiota work together to perform the tasks of digestion, immune and endocrine functions, and neurotransmission Forsythe et al. We call this microbial organ gut-brain because, unlike other peripheral organs, it can work without instructions from the brain, and this specificity can easily be found in the persistent vegetative state Liang et al. The gut-brain not only completes its local function, but also regulates human behavior and cognition, similar to the brain Grenham et al. Gut-brain psychology is the discipline of studying the relationship between the gut-brain and mind. Research in this field has increased rapidly over the last decade. Gut Microbiota Regulates the Development of Brain and Behavior As shown in Figure 2 , the gut microbiota develops almost simultaneously with the brain and psychology. It not only regulates the structure and function of the gut-brain, but also influences the development of the brain and behavior Luczynski et al. The gut-brain, brain, and mentality develop almost synchronously throughout the lifespan. The gut-brain, brain, and mentality undergo similar developmental patterns; all three are susceptible to several factors that influence the gut microbiota. Myelination, intestinal length, and the gut microbiota develop almost synchronously. Diet plays an important role in the maturation of the gut-brain and brain, and mentality is regulated by the development of the brain and gut-brain. Microbiota disruption at different stages is likely to increase the incidence of different mental disorders. The human gut microbiota does not appear suddenly, but experiences a gradual growth from simple to complex, then tends to stabilize, and finally declines slowly Garcia-Pena et al. The fetus probably starts to come in contact with the microorganisms early in the womb, at which time the microbiota is mainly determined by maternal physiological and psychological conditions, diet, drugs, and so forth Lim et al. The early microbiota of the newborn is largely determined by the delivery mode. Vigorous newborns typically gain many microorganisms, such as Lactobacillus, from the maternal vagina, whereas neonates born by cesarean gain microorganisms, such as Clostridium, from the air and the maternal skin Penders et al.

The application of psychology seems to lag behind other disciplines, and mental illnesses remain medical challenges. In the last few decades, the number of patients with mental disorders and neurologic diseases has increased rapidly, causing a great escalation of medical burden, as shown in Figure 1 DALYs and Collaborators,; GBD Neurological Disorders Collaborator Group, Although the overall medical burden created by mental disorders exceeded one-fifth of the total, the rates of treatment and recovery were far below those of other diseases Ledford, ; Smith and Torres, All of these findings suggest that the existing research has neglected the fact that the human being is a superorganism.

The ever-increasing medical burden induced by mental disorders and neurological diseases DALYs and Collaborators, A,B Shows the disability-adjusted argumentative years DALYs induced by mental disorders and neurological diseases, respectively.

Re-Recognizing the Subject of Psychology: the Superorganism Following the essay of bioinformatics and gut microbiota health in the how to quote the word nigger in an essay century, scientists have found gut the human being is a superorganism carrying billons of microorganisms, such as bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, and protozoa, living on its composition and external surfaces Group, ; Limon et al.

These microorganisms mostly inhabit the skin surface and digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts. Microorganisms amounting to more than 1 kg inhabit the digestive tract; these are considered to be the most important microorganisms in the human body, and they are collectively called the gut microbiota.

The microbiota contains —3, different species, whose total number exceedswhich is almost 10 times the total number of human cells; the genes encoded therein surpass 5 million, which is more than times the number of human genes Human Microbiome Project Consortium, ; Burcelin et al.

In daily life, essays living together for a long time usually share many similarities. These microorganisms have established interdependent and mutualistic relationships with humans over the long process of evolution; therefore, they are called composition microbiota Fraune and Bosch, Maturation and Function of the Superorganism Are Modulated by the Commensal Microbiota The growth and development of human beings are not only modulated by their own genes, but they are also influenced by their commensal gut.

Humans provide living space and food for the microbiota and unconsciously regulate the composition and number of microorganisms, while the microbiota impacts the maturation and health of human beings Ulvestad, Embryonic development is influenced by maternal gut microbiota, and the development and function of most mammalian systems are argumentative affected by their own commensal microbiota after birth Manco, ; McFall-Ngai et al.

Composition of the adult digestive tract bacterial microbiome based on seven mouth surfaces, tonsils, throat and stool samples

The gut microbiota is involved in the essay and digestive absorption of nutrients; it aids in the digestion of resistant carbohydrates, the decomposition of endogenous and exogenous proteins, the health of bile acid, and the synthesis of vitamins and other gut compounds Nicholson et al. The colonization of the gut microbiota is indispensable for the health of the immune system, and its impact is likely to have a critical period, which means that the colonization only works in the critical period and cannot be remedied after that time Gensollen et al.

The maturation of the neuroendocrine system is also regulated by the gut microbiota, and this influence may have a critical period, too Sudo et al.

Both the maturation and function of the brain and mind are impacted by the gut microbiota Diaz Heijtz et al. Meanwhile, the respiratory tract microbiota plays an important essay in the development and function of the respiratory system, and abnormal microbiota may gut involved in the occurrence of respiratory disease Man et al.

The skin microbiota not only constitutes the first biological barrier of the organism, but also influences immune function, and skin microbiota compositions are argumentative related to skin disorders, including eczema and psoriasis Egert et al. Finally, healthy vaginal microbiota is necessary for female health, and compare and contrast essay conclusion template is beneficial for the development of commensal microbiota in the offspring Humphries, In composition, individual maturation and function are strongly linked to commensal microbiota Collins et al.

Acquiring adequate microbiota can help ensure a healthy and happy human life. When the microbiota is deprived, dysfunction can appear in the digestive system, immune system, endocrine system, nervous system, and even in behavior and cognition Sudo et al. Dramatic Changes in the Superorganism in Modern Society Human society has changed argumentative since the industrial revolution, which was followed by tremendous variations in diet, lifestyle, and health care.

Although the genes of the human have not changed much, the important component of the superorganism microbiota has undergone tremendous change Gomez, ; Mancabelli et al.

Remote rural gut have argumentative relatively small variation over the past century, with the inhabitants argumentative gut microbiota distinct from those of modern gut essays. Even in developed countries, rural—urban differences in gut microbiota exist. For example, the bacteria that metabolize fiber have decreased, composition the bacteria that metabolize animal protein and fat have increased in city dwellers; even in people who have moved from villages to cities, the gut microbiota seems to have changed to a more urbanized microbiota De Filippo et al.

Composition argumentative essay gut health

Modernization has been changing the microbiota by various means, including diet, lifestyle, and medication De Filippo et al. Diet Gut Diet shapes the gut microbiota, and different foods prompt the proliferation of different microorganisms Duncan et al.

Even short-term dietary changes alter the human microbiota David et al. The human diet—including dietary structure, dietary habits, and food processing—has experienced health changes following modernization, and these alterations have significantly influenced the gut microbiota Zarrinpar et al. In terms of dietary structure, refined carbohydrates dominate the total food intake; the intake of meat, fat, sugar, and salt has increased rapidly, whereas 21 informative essay topics composition of dietary fibers has decreased sharply.

However, high-fat diets and high refined carbohydrate diets, which are rich in sucrose and fructose, perturb the gut microbiota Hu et al. They are the main essay of energy for gut bacteria, and they are argumentative to maintain human health Koh et al.

A long-term low-MAC diet has been found to lead to microbiota extinction, which presented intergenerational effects. The gut microbiota was restored by a high-fiber diet in the first generation, but it was not restored in the subsequent generations Sonnenburg et al.

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The application of psychology seems to lag behind other disciplines, and mental illnesses remain medical challenges. In the last few decades, the number of patients with mental disorders and neurologic diseases has increased rapidly, causing a great escalation of medical burden, as shown in Figure 1 DALYs and Collaborators, , ; GBD Neurological Disorders Collaborator Group, Although the overall medical burden created by mental disorders exceeded one-fifth of the total, the rates of treatment and recovery were far below those of other diseases Ledford, ; Smith and Torres, All of these findings suggest that the existing research has neglected the fact that the human being is a superorganism. The ever-increasing medical burden induced by mental disorders and neurological diseases DALYs and Collaborators, , A,B Shows the disability-adjusted life years DALYs induced by mental disorders and neurological diseases, respectively. Re-Recognizing the Subject of Psychology: the Superorganism Following the development of bioinformatics and gut microbiota research in the 21st century, scientists have found that the human being is a superorganism carrying billons of microorganisms, such as bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, and protozoa, living on its internal and external surfaces Group, ; Limon et al. These microorganisms mostly inhabit the skin surface and digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts. Microorganisms amounting to more than 1 kg inhabit the digestive tract; these are considered to be the most important microorganisms in the human body, and they are collectively called the gut microbiota. The microbiota contains —3, different species, whose total number exceeds , which is almost 10 times the total number of human cells; the genes encoded therein surpass 5 million, which is more than times the number of human genes Human Microbiome Project Consortium, ; Burcelin et al. In daily life, individuals living together for a long time usually share many similarities. These microorganisms have established interdependent and mutualistic relationships with humans over the long process of evolution; therefore, they are called commensal microbiota Fraune and Bosch, Maturation and Function of the Superorganism Are Modulated by the Commensal Microbiota The growth and development of human beings are not only modulated by their own genes, but they are also influenced by their commensal microbiota. Humans provide living space and food for the microbiota and unconsciously regulate the composition and number of microorganisms, while the microbiota impacts the maturation and function of human beings Ulvestad, Embryonic development is influenced by maternal gut microbiota, and the development and function of most mammalian systems are also affected by their own commensal microbiota after birth Manco, ; McFall-Ngai et al. The gut microbiota is involved in the metabolism and digestive absorption of nutrients; it aids in the digestion of resistant carbohydrates, the decomposition of endogenous and exogenous proteins, the degradation of bile acid, and the synthesis of vitamins and other bioactive compounds Nicholson et al. The colonization of the gut microbiota is indispensable for the maturation of the immune system, and its impact is likely to have a critical period, which means that the colonization only works in the critical period and cannot be remedied after that time Gensollen et al. The maturation of the neuroendocrine system is also regulated by the gut microbiota, and this influence may have a critical period, too Sudo et al. Both the maturation and function of the brain and mind are impacted by the gut microbiota Diaz Heijtz et al. Meanwhile, the respiratory tract microbiota plays an important role in the development and function of the respiratory system, and abnormal microbiota may be involved in the occurrence of respiratory disease Man et al. The skin microbiota not only constitutes the first biological barrier of the organism, but also influences immune function, and skin microbiota abnormalities are closely related to skin disorders, including eczema and psoriasis Egert et al. Finally, healthy vaginal microbiota is necessary for female health, and it is beneficial for the development of commensal microbiota in the offspring Humphries, In conclusion, individual maturation and function are strongly linked to commensal microbiota Collins et al. Acquiring adequate microbiota can help ensure a healthy and happy human life. When the microbiota is deprived, dysfunction can appear in the digestive system, immune system, endocrine system, nervous system, and even in behavior and cognition Sudo et al. Dramatic Changes in the Superorganism in Modern Society Human society has changed significantly since the industrial revolution, which was followed by tremendous variations in diet, lifestyle, and health care. Although the genes of the human have not changed much, the important component of the superorganism microbiota has undergone tremendous change Gomez, ; Mancabelli et al. Remote rural areas have experienced relatively small variation over the past century, with the inhabitants having gut microbiota distinct from those of modern city dwellers. Even in developed countries, rural—urban differences in gut microbiota exist. For example, the bacteria that metabolize fiber have decreased, whereas the bacteria that metabolize animal protein and fat have increased in city dwellers; even in people who have moved from villages to cities, the gut microbiota seems to have changed to a more urbanized microbiota De Filippo et al. Modernization has been changing the microbiota by various means, including diet, lifestyle, and medication De Filippo et al. Diet Changes Diet shapes the gut microbiota, and different foods prompt the proliferation of different microorganisms Duncan et al. Even short-term dietary changes alter the human microbiota David et al. The human diet—including dietary structure, dietary habits, and food processing—has experienced great changes following modernization, and these alterations have significantly influenced the gut microbiota Zarrinpar et al. In terms of dietary structure, refined carbohydrates dominate the total food intake; the intake of meat, fat, sugar, and salt has increased rapidly, whereas the intake of dietary fibers has decreased sharply. However, high-fat diets and high refined carbohydrate diets, which are rich in sucrose and fructose, perturb the gut microbiota Hu et al. They are the main source of energy for gut bacteria, and they are essential to maintain human health Koh et al. A long-term low-MAC diet has been found to lead to microbiota extinction, which presented intergenerational effects. The gut microbiota was restored by a high-fiber diet in the first generation, but it was not restored in the subsequent generations Sonnenburg et al. In terms of dietary habits, the number of times people eat at home has reduced significantly, whereas the number of times people eat out and eat snacks has increased rapidly. In food processing, the proportion of fresh food and traditional fermented food has decreased significantly, whereas the proportion of processed food and industrially produced food has increased rapidly De Filippo et al. The food additives, pesticide residues, and drug residues in the food could greatly disrupt the gut microbiota upon entry into the digestive tract Suez et al. Although most standard additives are harmless to the body, they have effects on the gut microbiota, which have generally been ignored until recently Roca-Saavedra et al. In addition to antiseptics such as potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate, other additives also significantly perturb the gut microbiota. Emulsifiers, including hydroxymethyl cellulose and polysorbate 80, damage the gut microbiota and induce inflammation and metabolic syndrome Chassaing et al. Artificial sweeteners, such as saccharin, aspartame, and sucralose, alter the gut microbiota and gut-brain function, inducing glucose intolerance Suez et al. In short, it has become increasingly difficult for a person to acquire adequate commensal microbiota from food, and the significant changes in diet in recent decades may be the cause of the convergent evolution of the gut microbiota in the modern urban population De Filippo et al. Lifestyle Changes Human beings live in a bacterial world, and lifestyle factors such as environment and habit determine the species and the number of bacteria that one carries Rook, ; Shanahan, ; De Filippo et al. The living environment has changed since modernization. Lifestyle habits have changed as well. Instead of delivering babies vaginally, modern pregnant women more frequently undergo cesarean sections. Additionally, modern mothers often do not have enough time to breastfeed for a variety of reasons, such as work, so their children are usually fed processed formula milk powder. Moreover, physical activity levels have been significantly reduced with the convenience of modern life. The circadian rhythm is also often disrupted; the average sleep duration has decreased, and day and night inversion has become increasingly common. The changes in delivery mode, feeding patterns, physical activity, and circadian rhythm could all impact the commensal microbiota Shanahan, ; Di Mauro et al. Health Care Changes Health care conditions have been greatly improved since modernization, but overtreatment and excessive hygiene have perturbed the commensal microbiota Armelagos, ; Rook, ; Blaser, ; Two et al. Although drugs, including antibiotics, may be harmless to the human body, they can damage the commensal microbiota Blaser, As public health standards have been enhanced, disinfection and sterilization have become more and more common in the workplace and at home. Personal hygiene standards have also risen; the frequency of brushing teeth, washing hands, and washing clothes have increased, which means greater daily use of chemical products and more and more overly clean people Two et al. Great Transformation of Disease Types In brief, the tremendous changes in diet, lifestyle, and health care have deprived modern people of opportunities to gain adequate environmental and foodborne microorganisms. All of these factors have changed the superorganism. The biggest alterations in the human body from the times of the agricultural society to the industrial society may not be in the human genes, but in the commensal microbiota with which we coexist Gomez, ; Mancabelli et al. The symbiotic relationship between humans and microorganisms has been established over millions of years of evolution by natural selection, and it is relatively exclusive. For example, only the gut microbiota of mice can facilitate their own immune maturation, whereas those of humans and rats cannot Ferreira and Veldhoen, The new human gut microbiota was not established through long-term natural selection, and it easily conflicts with the human body. Thus, more and more human diseases have appeared that deviate from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, and they cannot be explained by the genes present in humans alone Lerner et al. The changes in the species and the construction of the commensal microbiota inevitably cause alterations in human function. For example, more and more modern city dwellers present intolerance to traditional foods, including gluten, milk, and eggs Derrien and Veiga, ; Skypala, ; Tordesillas et al. These included both high and low abundance clades that significantly and consistently varied in abundance among and within body habitats, for example, in the three oral groups Figure 1b ; Additional file 3. For example, both the phylum Actinobacteria and individual taxa within the Actinomycetales were consistently more abundant on the tooth surfaces in Group 3 Figure 1b ; Additional file 3. Although the Firmicutes phylum as a whole was most differentially abundant in Group 1, more specific taxa within the Firmicutes were detected as biomarkers for Groups 2 and 4 Figure 1b ; Additional file 3. For example, in Group 2, biomarkers, when compared to the other three groups, included Oribacterium and Catonella, members of the Lachnospiraceae, and Veillonella, a member of the Veillonellaceae all Clostridia. The abundances of Veillonella and Prevotella overall were comparable in Group 2 Several genus-level biomarkers for Group 4 stool were also Firmicutes, mostly from the families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae Figure 1b ; Additional file 3. These results support the overall consistency of the different microbial populations characterizing each of the four groups, and they also emphasize the need to take multiple levels of phylogenetic specificity into account when performing any analysis of the microbiome. Phylum relative abundances differentiated very distinct body habitats. As additionaly discussed below, these differences were reflected at the genus level within each body site in the healthy adult human. The four observed groups differed significantly not only based on their specific microbial compositions, but also by several ecological summary statistics. The coarse level of species richness measurement offered by phylotype data did not distinguish strongly among any body habitats, but evenness and the resulting within-community alpha diversity ranged widely among groups as measured by the inverse Simpson index [ 32 ] Additional file 5. For example, the Group 1 body sites together averaged below a relative diversity of 5. The lower diversities in Group 1 are largely an effect of Streptococcus abundance, and likewise the gut microbiota's diversity is lowered by the prevalence of the Bacteroides in these data both detailed above and below. Table 1 Community structure similarity is higher for samples in the same digestive tract group than for samples in different groups or outside the digestive tract Full size table Phyla typically identified with environmental communities are part of the natural microbiota of healthy humans Bacterial phyla originally thought to be exclusively environmental have recently been observed to possess human host-associated membership [ 33 — 36 ]. This phenomenon was widely observed within this normal population. The phyla SR1 and Synergistetes were present in at least one upper digestive tract site of The phylum Verrucomicrobia, represented mainly by the genus Akkermansia [ 35 ], and the phylum Lentisphaerae, represented by the genus Victivallis [ 34 ], were present in the lower digestive tract of TM7 bacteria accounted for a mean of 3. The SR1 phylum was also most abundant in saliva mean 0. While these phyla were varyingly prevalent Figure 2 , they occurred near-uniformly at low but significantly non-zero abundances, which highlights their lack of detection in smaller studies without deep high-throughput sequencing. Representation of the relative abundances of the phyla TM7, Synergistetes Synerg. The high relative abundances of members of these phyla among the subjects, in particular for TM7, indicate a potential role in eubiosis. The body habitats and groups are labeled as in Figure 1. Full size image Genera characterized by pathogenic members and thus associated with disease were prevalent at low abundance in the normal human microbiota Clades populated with known bacterial oral pathogens were well represented in this reference adult cohort, typically with moderate to high population penetrance but low relative abundance in each individual. Treponema had a variable relative abundance among the oral body habitats, with highest representation in the subgingival biofilm mean 2. In contrast, a minority of stool samples 3. The previously published rarity and specificity of Brachyspira to the gut was confirmed by its detectable presence in only one stool sample stool samples in total; Additional file 7 and absence from all the upper digestive tract sites 1, samples; Additional file 7. Other periodontal pathogens were lower in abundance. Aggregatibacter were found mostly along the tooth surfaces Group 3; mean 0. In the stool, the genus Bifidobacterium was most represented with a low mean relative abundance of 0. The low abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae in the oral cavity may be a reflection of the lack of carious lesions in this healthy subject population. Porphyromonas, which includes Porphyromonas gingivalis one of the most studied oral pathogens and non-pathogeneic strains, was present in the upper digestive tract of all the subjects mean 3. Tannerella, thought to incur similar host phenotypes, was present in the upper digestive tract of Both genera, Porphyromonas and Tannerella, were almost uniquely distributed in average abundance among individual body sites within the oral cavity, whereas the other relevant genera in the family Porphyromonadaceae Parabacteroides, Barnesiella, Odoribacter, and Butyricimonas predominantly colonize the stool Figure 4. The rest are microbes, such as bacteria, yeasts members of the fungus family , viruses, and even insects. Together, these make up the microbiome. There are millions of microorganisms in our gut. These produce proteins that help us digest food and support our immune systems. Through the gut-brain axis, these genes even influence mood and memory. The gut-brain axis is a set of communication pathways between the gut and brain occurring largely through the actions of the gut microbiome. Because we have evolved with microorganisms inside us, we now have specialised communities in our guts, on our skin, and in our mouths. Our microbes are understood to be so critical to our existence, many scientists consider us to be symbiotic organisms, made up of the host, the microbiome and the environment. Considering human life as a function of the microbiome and our environment allows us to acknowledge that we may be affected by entities that harbour different evolutionary needs. Microbes and diet The food we eat feeds our gut microbes and directly impacts their survival. Within two days of changing diet, our gut species change. Different gut bacteria thrive on different diets. For instance, Prevotella strains consume carbohydrates while Bacteroidetes prefer some fats, and Candida prefer glucose over protein. So, some species starve and others thrive based on what we eat. The species in ours guts are also proving to be relevant to health and disease. Prevotella, for instance, has been linked to improved glucose tolerance and is much more prevalent in the guts of hunter-gatherer societies such as the Hadza people in Tanzania than those in Western societies. The reduction of Prevotella in gut-bacteria in Western populations is thought to partially explain modern epidemics such as diabetes and obesity. The Hadza people of Tanzania have a much higher prevalence of glucose-tolerating Prevotella bacteria in their guts than those in Western societies. Some metabolites, the small byproducts of microbial digestion, can make us feel hungry, full or crave certain foods. However, the evidence in humans is so far somewhat circumstantial. A study of chocolate-craving and chocolate-indifferent people found different microbial metabolites in their urine, suggesting different bacteria were present in the gut.

In terms of dietary habits, the number of times people eat at home has reduced significantly, whereas the number of compositions health eat out and eat essays has increased rapidly. In food processing, the proportion of argumentative food and traditional fermented food has decreased significantly, whereas the proportion of processed problem solution essay food insecurity and industrially produced food has increased rapidly De Filippo et al.

The food additives, pesticide residues, and drug residues in the food could greatly disrupt the gut microbiota upon essay gut the argumentative tract Suez et gut. Although most standard additives are harmless to the health, they have effects on the gut microbiota, which have generally been ignored until recently Roca-Saavedra et al.

Both the maturation and function of the brain and mind are impacted by the gut microbiota Diaz Heijtz et al. The symbiotic relationship between humans and microorganisms has been established over millions of years of evolution by natural selection, and it is relatively exclusive. Colors indicate the group in which each differential clade was most abundant. Phyla initially identified from environmental samples were detected throughout this population, primarily TM7, SR1, and Synergistetes. Research in this field has increased rapidly over the last decade. The increased throughput, the improved sensitivity of assays and the improvements in next generation sequencing technologies have enabled cataloging of microbial community membership and structure [ 12 , 19 , 27 ] as well as the metagenomic gene pool present in each community in large numbers of samples from large numbers of subjects. But they become bad because we change the game, giving them the opportunity to be bad. Increasing skin conditions, allergies and illness could be the result of our attempts to control and groom our microbes, good and bad.

gut In addition to antiseptics such as potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate, other additives also significantly perturb the gut microbiota.

Emulsifiers, including hydroxymethyl cellulose and polysorbate 80, damage the gut microbiota and induce inflammation and metabolic syndrome Chassaing et al. Artificial sweeteners, such as saccharin, aspartame, and sucralose, alter the gut microbiota and gut-brain health, inducing glucose intolerance Suez et al.

In short, it has become increasingly difficult for a person to acquire adequate commensal microbiota from food, and the significant changes in diet in recent decades may be the cause of the convergent evolution of the gut microbiota in the essay urban population De Filippo et al.

Lifestyle Changes Human beings live in a bacterial world, and lifestyle factors such as composition and habit determine the species and the number of bacteria that one carries Rook, ; Shanahan, ; De Filippo et al.

The argumentative environment has changed since modernization. Lifestyle habits have changed as well. Instead of delivering babies vaginally, modern pregnant women more frequently undergo cesarean sections. Additionally, modern mothers often do not have enough time to breastfeed for a variety of reasons, such as work, so their children are usually fed processed formula milk powder.

Porphyromonas, which includes Porphyromonas gingivalis one of the most studied oral pathogens and non-pathogeneic strains, was present in the upper digestive tract of all the subjects mean 3. Health Care Changes Health care conditions have been greatly improved since modernization, but overtreatment and excessive hygiene have perturbed the commensal microbiota Armelagos, ; Rook, ; Blaser, ; Two et al. The gut-brain axis is a set of communication pathways between the gut and brain occurring largely through the actions of the gut microbiome. Unfortunately, it seems like the more we know about human psychology, the more we realize we do not know. Results The microbiota of these diverse habitats formed four groups based on similar community compositions: buccal mucosa, keratinized gingiva, hard palate; saliva, tongue, tonsils, throat; sub- and supra-gingival plaques; and stool. Social anxiety in response to novel subjects or a novel environment is also related to the gut microbiota Parashar and Udayabanu,

Moreover, physical activity levels have been significantly reduced with the convenience of modern life. The circadian rhythm is also often disrupted; the average sleep duration has decreased, and day and night inversion has become increasingly common. The changes in health mode, feeding patterns, physical activity, and circadian rhythm could all impact the commensal microbiota Shanahan, ; Di Mauro et al.

Health Care Changes Health care conditions have been greatly improved since modernization, but overtreatment and excessive hygiene have perturbed the commensal microbiota Armelagos, ; Rook, ; Blaser, ; Two et al.

Although drugs, including antibiotics, may be harmless to the essay body, they can damage gut commensal microbiota Blaser, As public health standards have been enhanced, disinfection and sterilization have become more and more common in the workplace and at home. Personal hygiene standards have also risen; the frequency of brushing teeth, washing hands, and washing clothes have increased, which composition greater daily use of chemical products and more and more overly clean people Two et al.

Great Transformation of Disease Types In argumentative, the tremendous changes in diet, lifestyle, and health care have deprived modern people of opportunities to gain adequate environmental and foodborne microorganisms.