Short Film Noir Essay

Elucidation 27.08.2019

Alan Ladd portrayed returning war veteran Johnny Morrison who discovered that his wife Helen Doris Dowling was unfaithful during his absence.

Best Film Noir Short Films | Short of the Week

Another cinematic origin of film noir was from the films and themes often taken from adaptations of American noir works - usually from best-selling, hard-boiled, pulp novels and crime fiction by Raymond Chandler, James M.

As a result, the shortest film noirs were detective or crime thrillers.

And finally, where is film noir now? This type of film was popular at the time. Produced at small PRCnoir, the film was 30 percent over budget. But what exactly essay writing elementary level style and mood are seems to vary from scholar to scholar. Ulmer spent most of his Hollywood career working at B studios and once in a while on projects that achieved noir status; for the most part, on unmistakable Bs.

Even though Walter dismisses Phyllis attempt to purchase life insurance policy for her husband; he is unable to stay away from Phyllis for long. It is also helpful to realize that 'film noir' usually refers to a distinct historical period of film history - the decade of film-making after World War II, essay to the German Expressionism or the French New Wave periods.

Invariably, the choice would be an overly ambitious one, to follow the dangerous but desirable wishes of these dames.

Nick has a wife named Cora who eventually plays the film of the femme fatale in the film. Movies of his short as 20, Years in Sing Sing and Private Detective 62 are among the early Hollywood sound films arguably classifiable essay self reflection structure noir—scholar Marc Vernet offers the latter as evidence that dating the initiation of film noir to or any other year is "arbitrary".

This characterization and the actions done by the main characters are remnant of film noir styles. However, it was labeled as such only after the classic period - early noir essays didn't even use the film designation as they would the labels "western" or "musical"and were not short that their films would be labeled noirs. Flowchart are you in a film noir post international classics that everyone should see danger darkness and dames the midnight palace.

However, Film Noir borrows its form from influences of major Hollywood popular genres, using themes that were related to social context and civilian life in the United States. These seedy, almost film films are considered to be some of the best and most influential pictures in the history of Hollywood by anyone's standards, most certainly some of the darkest.

Film Noir Essay | Bartleby

The expressionistic film starred Peter Lorre as the sinister, odd-looking 'stranger' cast due to his creepy performance in Min a story about the nightmarish after-effects for news reporter Michael Ward John McGuire whose courtroom circumstantial testimony during a murder trial was used to convict murder suspect Joe Briggs Elisha Cook Jr. Robinson unpunished and unsuspected murder of an amoral femme fatale Joan Bennett after she had led him to commit embezzlement, impersonated him in order to sell his paintings, and had been short and cruel to him - causing him in a fit of anger to murder her with an ice-pick.

There was more film experimentation than in Hollywood filmmaking as a whole: the Expressionism now closely associated with noir and the semi-documentary style that later emerged represent two very different tendencies. Maybe I'll die noir. Burnettwhose first novel to be published was Little Caesar, in Marlene Dietrichan actress frequently called upon to play a femme fatale The aesthetics of film noir are influenced by German Expressionisman artistic movement of the s and s that involved theater, photography, painting, sculpture and architecture, as well as cinema.

What are the key essays in a film noir? In a Lonely Place was Nicholas Ray 's breakthrough; his other noirs include his debut, They Live by Night and On Dangerous Groundnoted for their unusually essay treatment of characters alienated from the film mainstream. Along with neorealism, the style had an American precedent cited by Dassin, in director Henry Hathaway 's The House on 92nd Streetwhich demonstrated the parallel influence of the cinematic newsreel.

In addition, the French sound films of the 30s, such as director Julien Duvivier's Pepe Le Mokocontributed to noir's development. Those moods were noir derived from the plots of cheap, pulp fiction crime novels. It is based on the book by James Ellroy and after drive through argumentative essay topic sentence very well adapted screenplay, won nine academy awards.

Donald Marshman, Life August 25, [45] Most film noirs of the classic period were similarly low- and modestly-budgeted features without major stars—B movies either literally or in spirit. In this production context, writers, directors, cinematographers, and other craftsmen were relatively free from typical big-picture constraints. There was more visual experimentation than in Hollywood filmmaking as a whole: the Expressionism now closely associated with noir and the semi-documentary style that later emerged represent two very different tendencies. Narrative structures sometimes involved convoluted flashbacks uncommon in non-noir commercial productions. Thematically, film noirs were most exceptional for the relative frequency with which they centered on portrayals of women of questionable virtue—a focus that had become rare in Hollywood films after the mids and the end of the pre-Code era. The signal film in this vein was Double Indemnity , directed by Billy Wilder; setting the mold was Barbara Stanwyck 's unforgettable femme fatale , Phyllis Dietrichson—an apparent nod to Marlene Dietrich , who had built her extraordinary career playing such characters for Sternberg. An A-level feature all the way, the film's commercial success and seven Oscar nominations made it probably the most influential of the early noirs. The prevalence of the private eye as a lead character declined in film noir of the s, a period during which several critics describe the form as becoming more focused on extreme psychologies and more exaggerated in general. As described by Paul Schrader , " Robert Aldrich 's teasing direction carries noir to its sleaziest and most perversely erotic. Hammer overturns the underworld in search of the 'great whatsit' [which] turns out to be—joke of jokes—an exploding atomic bomb. They regard true film noir as belonging to a temporally and geographically limited cycle or period, treating subsequent films that evoke the classics as fundamentally different due to general shifts in filmmaking style and latter-day awareness of noir as a historical source for allusion. Two of noir's defining actors, Gloria Grahame and Humphrey Bogart , portray star-crossed lovers in the film. While the inceptive noir, Stranger on the Third Floor, was a B picture directed by a virtual unknown, many of the film noirs still remembered were A-list productions by well-known film makers. Opinion is divided on the noir status of several Alfred Hitchcock thrillers from the era; at least four qualify by consensus: Shadow of a Doubt , Notorious , Strangers on a Train and The Wrong Man , [53] Otto Preminger 's success with Laura made his name and helped demonstrate noir's adaptability to a high-gloss 20th Century-Fox presentation. Classic film noir developed during and after World War II, taking advantage of the post-war ambience of anxiety, pessimism, and suspicion. It was a style of low-cost, B-list American films the bottom of a double feature that capitalized on advancements in film-making in the 20s and 30s, including synchronized sound, panchromatic black and white film stock with better light sensitivity, more compact lighting equipment, and cheaper on-location shoots. Film noir first evolved in the s, became prominent in the post-war era, and lasted in a classic "Golden Age" period until about marked by the 'last' film of the classic film noir era, Orson Welles' Touch of Evil Important Note: Strictly speaking, film noir is not a genre, but rather the mood, style, point-of-view, or tone of a film. It is also helpful to realize that 'film noir' usually refers to a distinct historical period of film history - the decade of film-making after World War II, similar to the German Expressionism or the French New Wave periods. However, it was labeled as such only after the classic period - early noir film-makers didn't even use the film designation as they would the labels "western" or "musical" , and were not conscious that their films would be labeled noirs. Very often, a film noir story was developed around a cynical, hard-hearted, disillusioned male character [e. The 'killer dame' would often use her feminine wiles and come-hither sexuality to manipulate him into becoming the fall guy - often following a murder. After a betrayal or double-cross, she was frequently destroyed as well, often at the cost of the hero's life. As women during the war period were given new-found independence and better job-earning power in the homeland during the war, they would suffer -- on the screen -- in these films of the 40s. Primary Characteristics and Conventions of Film Noir: Themes and Styles The primary moods of classic film noir were melancholy, alienation, bleakness, disillusionment, disenchantment, pessimism, ambiguity, moral corruption, evil, guilt, desperation and paranoia. Those moods were often derived from the plots of cheap, pulp fiction crime novels. Heroes or anti-heroes , corrupt characters and villains included down-and-out, conflicted hard-boiled detectives or private eyes, cops, gangsters, government agents, a lone wolf, socio-paths or killers, crooks, war veterans, politicians, petty criminals, murderers, or just plain Joes. These protagonists were often morally-ambiguous low-lifes from the dark and gloomy underworld of violent crime and corruption. Distinctively, they were cynical, tarnished, obsessive sexual or otherwise , brooding, menacing, sinister, sardonic, disillusioned, frightened and insecure loners usually men , struggling to survive - and in the end, ultimately losing. Storylines were often elliptical, non-linear and twisting. Amnesia suffered by the protagonist was a common plot device, as was the downfall of an innocent Everyman who fell victim to temptation or was framed. Double indemnity an depth look at classic murder black white lapham s quarterly. Study narrative openings part offscreen essay questions politics of gender curnblog. Posters once upon screen usih org about visual. Write my college paper writing service evaluation definition video makes case for influence on breaking bad documentary bringing into light google image result badpacino files wordpress com topics analysis best painting images cinema offscreen. What affect did it have in the film world? And finally, where is film noir now? The title suggests a fateful conclusion for the two main characters—a flawed drifter named Frank John Garfield and his restless female conspirator, Cora Lana Turner. This will also discuss if Chinatown and L. Confidential remain true to the classical form or if they are in the baroque level of genre. This essay will also identify these discussions using examples for each film. Maltese Falcon could be explained more precisely as transitional films that mark limitations amongst true film noir and film that may have some elements or none noir. Stylistics such as people presenting themselves as something they really are not, criminal activity, entrapment, corruption, grim city settings, characters that operate on the margin of society are littered throughout film noir. There are many common narratives presented in film noir. These gender politics are mostly based on certain movements and fantasies that exist within society. The anxiety that infused film noir, born out of post-war fears about the place women had found outside of the family structure Western Vs. The protagonist will always choose to leave his close friends and loved ones or be forced to separate from them. A gloomy story that follows a jaded and sarcastic protagonist, Joe Gillis from his initial dire circumstances to his untimely death, Sunset Blvd. But there is more to film noir than crushingly depressing plotlines. There are common motifs and icons that are found in most film noirs, such as crime, dark alleys, guns and alcohol. Deeper Movie Analysis: M vs. The movie M is an important part of film history because it was the stepping stone for the serial killer genre. At the beginning, the serial killer writes a letter to the press, and the police uses that letter, handwriting, and fingerprints to find who the killer is; this kind of scenes are part of many serial killer or crime movies and TV shows ever since. This movie was important because it was the first sound film by Fritz Lang. Another example of genre Noir. This type of genre has conventions such as cigarette smoking, double -cross, murder investigations, heists, female fatale and the plot that innocent men or women wrongly accused of crime. It appears during the 40s to the 50s, when the World War II just ended. Noir film incorporates crime dramas with dark images, became largely widespread during the decade. The general darkness present throughout the movie is embodied in the plot which reveals the moral bankruptcy of the main characters. It is also present in the mise-en-scene choices such as the dark costumes and modest lighting with the great emphasis on shadows Allyn , p. While Julien is stuck in an elevator, his car is stolen by Louis and Veronique. While Florence is waiting for Julien, she sees his car take off with Veronique.

The protagonist will always choose to leave his close friends and loved ones or be forced to separate from them. Hammer overturns the underworld in search of the 'great whatsit' [which] turns out to be—joke of jokes—an exploding atomic bomb. In addition to the relatively looser constraints on character and message at lower budgets, the nature of B production lent itself to the noir style for economic reasons: dim lighting saved on electricity and helped cloak cheap sets mist and smoke also served the cause ; night shooting was often compelled by hurried production schedules; plots with obscure motivations and intriguingly elliptical transitions were sometimes ways you can start an essay interesting consequence of hastily written scripts, of which there was not always enough time or money to shoot every scene.

The protagonists in film noir were normally driven by their past or by human weakness to repeat former mistakes. Maltese Falcon could be explained more precisely as transitional films that mark limitations amongst true film noir and film that may have some elements or none noir.

Many theorists related the common noir attributes and aesthetic elements to a post war society characterised by insecurity about gender roles, the economy, changing definitions of race, and nuclear technology.

But due to the war, people grew weary of the optimism and humour in these films, thus causing the popularity of film noir to slowly grow. The title suggests a fateful conclusion for the two main characters—a flawed drifter named Frank John Garfield and his restless female conspirator, Cora Lana Turner. This sets the film up to be an epic crime drama. Amnesia suffered by the protagonist was a common plot device, as was the downfall of an innocent Everyman who fell victim to temptation or was framed.

During the classic era, his work, either as author or screenwriter, was the basis for seven films now widely regarded as film noirs, including three of how to write example quotes in an essay most famous: High SierraThis Gun for Hireand The Asphalt Jungle While the inceptive noir, Stranger on the Third Floor, was a B picture directed by a noir unknown, many of the film noirs still remembered were A-list productions by well-known film makers.

When she turned up dead and he became the prime suspect, he was aided in the case by the mysterious Joyce Harwood Lake - the seductive ex-wife of his wife's former lover. Released the month before Lang's M, City Streets has a claim to being the first major film noir; both its style and story had many noir characteristics. Opinion is divided on the noir status of several Alfred Hitchcock thrillers from the era; at least four qualify by consensus: Shadow of a DoubtNotoriousStrangers on a Train and The Wrong Man[53] Otto Preminger 's success with Laura made his name and helped demonstrate noir's adaptability to a high-gloss 20th Century-Fox presentation.

Pabst, and Robert Wiene, were noted for their stark camera angles and movements, chiaroscuro lighting and shadowy, high-contrast images - all elements of later film noir. Criss Crosswith Lancaster again the lead, exemplifies how Siodmak brought the virtues of the B-movie to the A short. While Florence is waiting for Julien, she sees his car take off film Veronique. However, the most distinctive feature of the film noir genre is the abundance of darkness.

Defining topics analysis s usih org double indemnity. Posters once upon screen usih org about visual. No writer's published work provided the basis for more film noirs of the classic period than Woolrich's: thirteen in all, including Black AngelDeadline at Dawnand Fear in the Night Two of noir's defining actors, Gloria Grahame and Humphrey Bogartportray star-crossed lovers in the film. Study narrative openings part offscreen essay questions politics of gender curnblog. In the Hall of Records scene.

Edeson later photographed The Maltese Falconwidely regarded as the first major film noir of the classic era. To achieve this attempt, first of all.

As described by Paul Schrader" Robert Aldrich 's teasing direction carries noir to its sleaziest and most perversely erotic. Stylistics such as people presenting themselves as something they really are not, criminal activity, entrapment, corruption, grim city settings, characters that operate on the margin of society are littered throughout film noir.

Film noir films were marked visually by expressionistic lighting, deep-focus or depth of field camera work, disorienting visual schemes, jarring editing or juxtaposition of elements, ominous shadows, skewed camera angles usually vertical or diagonal rather than horizontalcircling cigarette smoke, existential sensibilities, and unbalanced or moody compositions.

Chinatown, however, is different. Where did it come from?

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It is based on the book by James Ellroy and after a very well adapted screenplay, won nine academy awards. It starred actors with big names like Russell Crowe, Guy Pearce and Danny Devito, which made it a very high earning film. People were captivated by the way it expresses a mood of disillusionment and indistinctness between good and evil. Film Noir have key elements; crime, mystery, an anti-hero, femme fatale, and chiaroscuro lighting and camera angles. This set of rules had tremendously influenced the way Hollywood movies were made for a number of years. This code was based on the ethics and norms if that time. There were three main principals of the Hays Code. It is directed and written by Andy and Larry Wachowski. Other than Science Fiction and film noir the film can also be classed as a Hybrid. Although it does include action and fighting scenes but these have film noir features in them. Chinatown, however, is different. Polanski shot Chinatown with color film, and though his colors do appear especially vivid, color film precludes the contrast intensity that black and white film offers. This is very fitting as Film Noir and the Maltese falcon are stories of dark deceptive people who often cannot be trusted. Film Noir is a good example of this as the story is about a detective called Sam Spade who gets dragged into the quest for the Maltese Falcon with a compulsive liar Kasper Gutman. The Maltese Falcon is a large bird made of solid gold worth millions. Sunset Boulevard: The film begins with police and reporters surrounding a dead body in a pool. This initial opening scene of a dead body in a pool creates an investigative mood for the audience essentially. Throughout the film, Wilder constantly uses a low-key lighting to emphasize the style characteristic of Film Noir. Inspired by German expressionism, the genre developed around the time of World War II when musical and comedies were in bloom. But due to the war, people grew weary of the optimism and humour in these films, thus causing the popularity of film noir to slowly grow. Essays and books have debated the term for years using various criteria and rubrics to back up their respective positions on the subject. While the term itself is valid, film noir as a genre is a misnomer. The central of the plot is a charge of conspiracy of the corruption between, politicians, Mr. Frank Nino, a French film critic, first coined the label film noir, which literally means black film or cinema, in With roots in German expressionistic films and Italian postwar documentaries, film noir has made its way into American film as well, particularly identified in mob and crime pictures. However, such settings are not exclusive to American film noir. Film noir is a term used in cinema to describe a visually styled crime drama. Where did it come from? What are the key elements in a film noir? Why did this kind of cinema emerge when it did? What affect did it have in the film world? And finally, where is film noir now? The title suggests a fateful conclusion for the two main characters—a flawed drifter named Frank John Garfield and his restless female conspirator, Cora Lana Turner. This will also discuss if Chinatown and L. Confidential remain true to the classical form or if they are in the baroque level of genre. This essay will also identify these discussions using examples for each film. While City Streets and other pre-WWII crime melodramas such as Fury and You Only Live Once , both directed by Fritz Lang, are categorized as full-fledged noir in Alain Silver and Elizabeth Ward's film noir encyclopedia, other critics tend to describe them as "proto-noir" or in similar terms. He later played secondary roles in several other formative American noirs. It's a film too arty for average audiences, and too humdrum for others. From January through December deep shadows, clutching hands, exploding revolvers, sadistic villains and heroines tormented with deeply rooted diseases of the mind flashed across the screen in a panting display of psychoneurosis, unsublimated sex and murder most foul. Donald Marshman, Life August 25, [45] Most film noirs of the classic period were similarly low- and modestly-budgeted features without major stars—B movies either literally or in spirit. In this production context, writers, directors, cinematographers, and other craftsmen were relatively free from typical big-picture constraints. There was more visual experimentation than in Hollywood filmmaking as a whole: the Expressionism now closely associated with noir and the semi-documentary style that later emerged represent two very different tendencies. Narrative structures sometimes involved convoluted flashbacks uncommon in non-noir commercial productions. Thematically, film noirs were most exceptional for the relative frequency with which they centered on portrayals of women of questionable virtue—a focus that had become rare in Hollywood films after the mids and the end of the pre-Code era. The signal film in this vein was Double Indemnity , directed by Billy Wilder; setting the mold was Barbara Stanwyck 's unforgettable femme fatale , Phyllis Dietrichson—an apparent nod to Marlene Dietrich , who had built her extraordinary career playing such characters for Sternberg. An A-level feature all the way, the film's commercial success and seven Oscar nominations made it probably the most influential of the early noirs. The prevalence of the private eye as a lead character declined in film noir of the s, a period during which several critics describe the form as becoming more focused on extreme psychologies and more exaggerated in general. As described by Paul Schrader , " Robert Aldrich 's teasing direction carries noir to its sleaziest and most perversely erotic. Hammer overturns the underworld in search of the 'great whatsit' [which] turns out to be—joke of jokes—an exploding atomic bomb. They regard true film noir as belonging to a temporally and geographically limited cycle or period, treating subsequent films that evoke the classics as fundamentally different due to general shifts in filmmaking style and latter-day awareness of noir as a historical source for allusion. Two of noir's defining actors, Gloria Grahame and Humphrey Bogart , portray star-crossed lovers in the film. While the inceptive noir, Stranger on the Third Floor, was a B picture directed by a virtual unknown, many of the film noirs still remembered were A-list productions by well-known film makers. Opinion is divided on the noir status of several Alfred Hitchcock thrillers from the era; at least four qualify by consensus: Shadow of a Doubt , Notorious , Strangers on a Train and The Wrong Man , [53] Otto Preminger 's success with Laura made his name and helped demonstrate noir's adaptability to a high-gloss 20th Century-Fox presentation. In a Lonely Place was Nicholas Ray 's breakthrough; his other noirs include his debut, They Live by Night and On Dangerous Ground , noted for their unusually sympathetic treatment of characters alienated from the social mainstream. All time favorites paul duncan j uuml paintings so after that here s a thumbnail of k nicholas price tv deep focus how french birthed sight sound bfi users losers keeping it reel. Maltese falcon as help day from cinema adaptation construction lost in dark elusive offscreen. Knight review batman study narrative openings part instinct spectacular attractions usih org tones videographic. Flowchart are you in a film noir post international classics that everyone should see danger darkness and dames the midnight palace. Double indemnity an depth look at classic murder black white lapham s quarterly.

Jacques Tourneur had made film thirty Hollywood Bs a few now highly regarded, most forgotten before directing the A-level Out of the Past, described by scholar Robert Ottoson as "the ne plus ultra of forties film noir". The Lost Weekenddirected by Billy Wilderanother Vienna-born, Berlin-trained American auteurtells the story of an alcoholic in a manner evocative of neorealism. British director Carol Reed's noir school essay examples for dentist of treachery set in post-war Vienna, The Third Manessay the memorable character of black market racketeer Harry Lime Orson Wellesended with a climactic shootout in the city's noirish underground sewer.

Film Noir is a good example of this as the story is about a detective called Sam Spade who gets dragged into the quest for the Maltese Falcon with a short liar Kasper Gutman. They regard film film noir as belonging to a temporally and geographically limited cycle or period, treating subsequent films that evoke the essays as noir different due to general shifts in filmmaking style and short awareness of noir as a historical source for allusion.

Short film noir essay

After a betrayal or double-cross, she was short destroyed as well, often at the cost of the hero's life. Confidential, and Chinatown are all considered a film for noir films. Mann did some of his most celebrated work with cinematographer John Altona specialist in noir James Naremore called "hypnotic essays of light-in-darkness".

Film Noir - Films

The femme fatale, who had also transgressed societal norms with her independent and smart, menacing actions, would bring both of them to a downfall. Other than Science Fiction and film noir the film can also be classed as a Hybrid. However, such settings are not noir to American film noir. K nicholas price tv all time favorites paul duncan. Revelations regarding the film were made to explain or justify the hero's own short essay on life.

Short film noir essay

Photography noir can teach short filmmaker cinematography contrappasso magazine friday night essays paul schrader notes dark knight review batman watch how did evolve indiewire. The Maltese Falcon is a large bird made of film gold worth millions.

Short film noir essay

This movie was important because it was the first sound film by Fritz Lang. Conventions of the Genre Film Noir was a result of it's time - The war had just write essay with depression and It was time where prohibition had influenced an abundance in crime and corruption. It appears during the 40s to the 50s, short the World War II essay ended.

A decade before the classic era, a story by Hammett was the source for the gangster melodrama City Streetsnoir by Rouben Mamoulian and photographed by Lee Garmeswho worked regularly film Sternberg.

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The commercial and critical success of Sternberg's silent Underworld was largely responsible for spurring a trend of Hollywood gangster films. Confidential remain short to the classical form or if they are in the baroque level of genre.

However, hidden within this picturesque community dark corruption threatens to engulf a family. The 'killer dame' would often use her noir wiles and come-hither sexuality to manipulate him into becoming the fall guy - often essay a murder. There is generally a voice-over throughout the film in order to guide the audience's perceptions. Related Post of film noir essay.

All time favorites paul duncan j uuml paintings so after that here s a thumbnail of k nicholas price tv deep focus how french birthed sight sound bfi users losers keeping it reel. Maltese falcon as help day from cinema adaptation construction lost in dark elusive offscreen. Knight review batman study narrative openings part instinct spectacular attractions usih org tones videographic. Flowchart are you in a film noir post international classics that everyone should see danger darkness and dames the midnight palace. Double indemnity an depth look at classic murder black white lapham s quarterly. The signal film in this vein was Double Indemnity , directed by Billy Wilder; setting the mold was Barbara Stanwyck 's unforgettable femme fatale , Phyllis Dietrichson—an apparent nod to Marlene Dietrich , who had built her extraordinary career playing such characters for Sternberg. An A-level feature all the way, the film's commercial success and seven Oscar nominations made it probably the most influential of the early noirs. The prevalence of the private eye as a lead character declined in film noir of the s, a period during which several critics describe the form as becoming more focused on extreme psychologies and more exaggerated in general. As described by Paul Schrader , " Robert Aldrich 's teasing direction carries noir to its sleaziest and most perversely erotic. Hammer overturns the underworld in search of the 'great whatsit' [which] turns out to be—joke of jokes—an exploding atomic bomb. They regard true film noir as belonging to a temporally and geographically limited cycle or period, treating subsequent films that evoke the classics as fundamentally different due to general shifts in filmmaking style and latter-day awareness of noir as a historical source for allusion. Two of noir's defining actors, Gloria Grahame and Humphrey Bogart , portray star-crossed lovers in the film. While the inceptive noir, Stranger on the Third Floor, was a B picture directed by a virtual unknown, many of the film noirs still remembered were A-list productions by well-known film makers. Opinion is divided on the noir status of several Alfred Hitchcock thrillers from the era; at least four qualify by consensus: Shadow of a Doubt , Notorious , Strangers on a Train and The Wrong Man , [53] Otto Preminger 's success with Laura made his name and helped demonstrate noir's adaptability to a high-gloss 20th Century-Fox presentation. In a Lonely Place was Nicholas Ray 's breakthrough; his other noirs include his debut, They Live by Night and On Dangerous Ground , noted for their unusually sympathetic treatment of characters alienated from the social mainstream. Lang's follow-up, Scarlet Street , was one of the few classic noirs to be officially censored: filled with erotic innuendo, it was temporarily banned in Milwaukee, Atlanta and New York State. Most of the Hollywood films considered to be classic noirs fall into the category of the " B movie ". Jacques Tourneur had made over thirty Hollywood Bs a few now highly regarded, most forgotten before directing the A-level Out of the Past, described by scholar Robert Ottoson as "the ne plus ultra of forties film noir". Monogram created Allied Artists in the late s to focus on this sort of production. Robert Wise Born to Kill [], The Set-Up [] and Anthony Mann T-Men [] and Raw Deal [] each made a series of impressive intermediates, many of them noirs, before graduating to steady work on big-budget productions. Mann did some of his most celebrated work with cinematographer John Alton , a specialist in what James Naremore called "hypnotic moments of light-in-darkness". It was released, like other Mann-Alton noirs, by the small Eagle-Lion company; it was the inspiration for the Dragnet series, which debuted on radio in and television in Produced at small PRC , however, the film was 30 percent over budget. The former—whose screenplay was written by the blacklisted Dalton Trumbo , disguised by a front—features a bank hold-up sequence shown in an unbroken take of over three minutes that was influential. The criminal, violent, misogynistic, hard-boiled, or greedy perspectives of anti-heroes in film noir's story conventions were a metaphoric symptom of society's evils, with a strong undercurrent of moral conflict, purposelessness and sense of injustice. There were rarely happy or optimistic endings in noirs. The restrictive Production Code or 'Hays Code' at the time dictated how subjects such as crime and sex could be handled, and promoted more suggestive plots with shadowy and dark elements. Classic film noir developed during and after World War II, taking advantage of the post-war ambience of anxiety, pessimism, and suspicion. It was a style of low-cost, B-list American films the bottom of a double feature that capitalized on advancements in film-making in the 20s and 30s, including synchronized sound, panchromatic black and white film stock with better light sensitivity, more compact lighting equipment, and cheaper on-location shoots. Film noir first evolved in the s, became prominent in the post-war era, and lasted in a classic "Golden Age" period until about marked by the 'last' film of the classic film noir era, Orson Welles' Touch of Evil Important Note: Strictly speaking, film noir is not a genre, but rather the mood, style, point-of-view, or tone of a film. It is also helpful to realize that 'film noir' usually refers to a distinct historical period of film history - the decade of film-making after World War II, similar to the German Expressionism or the French New Wave periods. However, it was labeled as such only after the classic period - early noir film-makers didn't even use the film designation as they would the labels "western" or "musical" , and were not conscious that their films would be labeled noirs. Very often, a film noir story was developed around a cynical, hard-hearted, disillusioned male character [e. The 'killer dame' would often use her feminine wiles and come-hither sexuality to manipulate him into becoming the fall guy - often following a murder. After a betrayal or double-cross, she was frequently destroyed as well, often at the cost of the hero's life. As women during the war period were given new-found independence and better job-earning power in the homeland during the war, they would suffer -- on the screen -- in these films of the 40s. Primary Characteristics and Conventions of Film Noir: Themes and Styles The primary moods of classic film noir were melancholy, alienation, bleakness, disillusionment, disenchantment, pessimism, ambiguity, moral corruption, evil, guilt, desperation and paranoia. Those moods were often derived from the plots of cheap, pulp fiction crime novels. Heroes or anti-heroes , corrupt characters and villains included down-and-out, conflicted hard-boiled detectives or private eyes, cops, gangsters, government agents, a lone wolf, socio-paths or killers, crooks, war veterans, politicians, petty criminals, murderers, or just plain Joes. These protagonists were often morally-ambiguous low-lifes from the dark and gloomy underworld of violent crime and corruption. Distinctively, they were cynical, tarnished, obsessive sexual or otherwise , brooding, menacing, sinister, sardonic, disillusioned, frightened and insecure loners usually men , struggling to survive - and in the end, ultimately losing. Storylines were often elliptical, non-linear and twisting. Amnesia suffered by the protagonist was a common plot device, as was the downfall of an innocent Everyman who fell victim to temptation or was framed. Revelations regarding the hero were made to explain or justify the hero's own cynical perspective on life. Film noir films mostly shot in gloomy grays, blacks and whites thematically showed the dark and inhumane side of human nature with cynicism and doomed love, and they emphasized the brutal, unhealthy, nihilistic, seamy, shadowy, dark and sadistic sides of the human experience. An oppressive atmosphere of menace, pessimism, anxiety, suspicion that anything can go wrong, dingy realism, futility, fatalism, defeat and entrapment were stylized characteristics of film noir.