McGraw-Hill, When citing this essay in the text, you would cite it parenthetically with the author's name just as you would do according to the previous example. If you are citing a text written by one author as opposed to an anthology, an example of how your citation should look is as follows: Bok, Sissela. New York: Vintage Books, Again, you would cite the author and page number parenthetically in the text.
Note: If you have two citations by the same author, you should include the year of publication in your parenthetical citation.
For example, if you had two bibliographical references to works by Sissela Bok, you would cite the one above like this: Bok , Note again: When you cite a source, you must give sufficient information for the reader to go directly to the cited page. If the page you cite is a web page, then you should write the full URL of the document you are citing from.
For example, if you were citing from an online copy of John Stuart Mill's Utilitarianism, your text would look like this: The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals, Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. By happiness is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure.
Things that are considered "common knowledge" do not need to be cited. Careful expression is especially important in philosophy, where problems frequently arise because of imprecise language. I offer this handout as an aid to more effective philosophical writing. Compare: Writing is always a struggle for people.
In the real world, the way you write the things you say is just as important as what you have to say. It is an undeniable truth that this is especially important in philosophy, where, frequently, people have problems because you are not being precise enough.
This handout is offered with this in mind. Write with an ignorant but not stupid reading in mind. Ask yourself, "Would this paper be intelligible to someone outside of the course? Have a clear thesis in mind.
Express it in one or two sentences, preferably at the beginning of your paper. Furthermore, have a definite plan in mind for the steps you will take to prove your thesis preferably in the form of an outline. Cut to the chase. Students tend to spend too much time "throat clearing"at the beginning of essays. Often, the first few paragraphs of an essay can be deleted without any loss in content and with a corresponding gain in effectiveness.
In other words, eliminate fluff for more effective writing. Make the paragraph the unit of composition. Each paragraph should express one and only one main idea. Keep them short and simple. Summarize your overall argument, even if you don't include the summary in your essay. If, after completing your essay, you can construct a clear outline of your overall argument either in your head or on paper , chances are you reader can, too.
If not, your argument is likely either confused or unclear. This point relates to 1 and 2. Make your transitions clear. For example, consider the opening phrases of six successive paragraphs from Charles Landesman's Philosophy: An Introduction to the Central Issues: An argument against hedonism was developed by G.
The hedonist has two responses to Moore. Another argument against hedonism The hedonist replies Cogent Arguments. Consistency and Contradition. Contraries and Contradictories. The Strength of a Proposition. An Outline of the Structure of a Philosophical Essay.
Anatomy of an Essay. Another Essay. How to Select an Essay Topic. Techniques for Composing. Successive ElaborationConceptual Note Taking. Research and Composing. Essay demonstrates an understanding of the material: The student has correctly grasped a philosophical problem or question, has explained it accurately, and on the basis of a substantially correct interpretation of any texts involved. Key terms are used correctly. The essay shows evidence of the student's independent thought, and is written in her distinctive voice.
Quotations are used, when appropriate, to support the writer's analysis, and an explanation is offered for each quotation. Essay has clear and coherent argument: There is a clearly stated thesis, and support for this thesis in the body of the paper. Sometimes they feel that since it is clear to them that their thesis is true, it does not need much argumentation.
It is common to overestimate the strength of your own position. That is because you already accept that point of view. But how will your opponent respond?
It is safest to assume that your reader is intelligent and knows a lot about your subject, but disagrees with you. Another common mistake is to think that your case will be stronger if you mention, even if briefly, virtually every argument that you have come across in support of your position.
Sometimes this is called the "fortress approach. There are several reasons for this. First, your reader is likely to find it difficult to keep track of so many different arguments, especially if these arguments approach the topic from different directions.
Second, the ones that will stand out will be the very best ones and the very worst ones. It is important to show some discrimination here. Only the most compelling one or two arguments should be developed.
Including weaker ones only gives the impression that you are unable to tell the difference between the two. Third, including many different arguments will result in spreading yourself too thinly. It is far better to cover less ground in greater depth than to range further afield in a superficial manner. It will also help to give your paper focus. In order to produce a good philosophy paper, it is first necessary to think very carefully and clearly about your topic.
Unfortunately, your reader likely your marker or instructor has no access to those thoughts except by way of what actually ends up on the page. He or she cannot tell what you meant to say but did not, and cannot read in what you would quickly point out if you were conversing face to face.
For better or for worse, your paper is all that is available. It must stand on its own. The responsibility for ensuring the accurate communication of ideas falls on the writer's shoulders. You must say exactly what you mean and in a way that minimizes the chances of being misunderstood.
It is difficult to overemphasize this point. There is no such thing as a piece of good philosophical writing that is unclear, ungrammatical, or unintelligible. Clarity and precision are essential elements here. A poor writing style militates against both of these. These are entirely unnecessary and of no interest to the informed reader.
There is no need to point out that your topic is an important one, and one that has interested philosophers for hundreds of years. Introductions should be as brief as possible. In fact, I recommend that you think of your paper as not having an introduction at all. Go directly to your topic. Lengthy quotations. Inexperienced writers rely too heavily on quotations and paraphrases. Direct quotation is best restricted to those cases where it is essential to establish another writer's exact selection of words.The following writing, though they will not philosophical a top quality paper, should help you determine where best to direct your efforts. I offer first some general comments on philosophical writing, and then some specific "do"s and "don't"s. One of the essay points to be clear about is that a philosophical essay is quite different martinich an essay in most other subjects. That is because it is introduction a research paper essay writing cash crops of pakistan essay an exercise in literary self-expression. It is not a report of what various scholars have had to say on a particular topic. It does not present the latest findings of tests or experiments.
Each paragraph should be fully developed and deal with only one topic. If you cannot formulate your thesis this way, odds are you are not clear enough about it. For help in these matters and we all need reference works in these areas I recommend a few of the many helpful books available in the campus bookstore. Clear writing reflects clear thinking; and that, after all, is what you are really trying to show.
Your reader will appreciate similar clarity. M37 Watson, Richard A. However, once a draft is actually written, it is quite easy to go back and outline it. Dialectical Reasoning.
M37 Watson, Richard A.
Instead, it is a reasoned defense of a thesis. Do it. McCarthy, eds. The Running Start. Have a friend read your essay to pick out typos and missing words. It is an undeniable truth that this is especially important in philosophy, where, frequently, people have problems because you are not being precise enough.
Keep them short and simple. He is the author or editor of thirteen books, including Hobbes: A Biography , The Philosophy of Language 4th edn. The main core of your paper should consist of a defense of the answer you gave.
Most exciting, I think, is the guidance about how to prepare an essay through a 'successive elaboration' of a first account of the paper's argument. There should be a logical progression of ideas - one that will be easy for the reader to follow. Note to the Second Edition.