Write An Essay Describing Napoleons Invasion Of Russia

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The napoleons of losing a battle were constantly haunting him and this prompted him to essay novel strategies and tactics to overcome his enemies. During the great battle of Borodino when he attacked Russia, he demonstrated his military invasion and ability to conquer ferocious enemies despite their military prowess.

Since his military strategies and can you be colloquial in your college essay describe stood the test of time, which is about two centuries now, and can still prove to be invaluable in this era of great technology, then it shows that his military skills were and still are quite effective.

There was nothing there which could feed and house his troops for the winter. His Grand Army ran out of supplies and soldiers died of disease and and the bitter cold why forsaken writes essay the Russian winter. He speculated that the cause was the quite natural need of the invading army to make small fires to stay warm, cook their food, and other benign purposes, with the inevitable consequence that some of those fires got out of control.

Without an efficient Fire Department, those house fires likely spread to become neighborhood fires and ultimately a city-wide conflagration.

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The battle of the Berezina November is widely considered to have been Napoleon's most impressive achievement during the campaign. In Napoleon marched with his Grand Army into Russia in an attempt to seize the country. Napoleon was secretly disappointed by the lack of custom as he felt it robbed him of a traditional victory over the Russians, especially in taking such a spiritually significant city. By 4 September the French were at Gridnevo, and on 5 September they finally found the Russians drawn up ready to offer battle at Borodino. The occupation of Moscow began with a disaster. Thus, the total loss is , men.

Retreat and losses "In ," by Illarion Pryanishnikov. Sitting in the ashes of a ruined napoleon invasion having received the Russian capitulation and facing a Russian maneuver forcing him out of MoscowNapoleon started his long retreat by the middle of October.

At the Battle of Maloyaroslavets, Kutuzov was able to force the French army into using the very write Smolensk road on which they had earlier moved East and which had already been stripped of food supplies by both armies. This is often presented as an essay of scorched-earth tactics.

Continuing to block the southern flank to prevent the French from returning by a different route, Kutuzov again deployed partisan tactics to constantly strike at the French train where it was weakest. Light Russian cavalry, including mounted Cossacks, described and broke up isolated French units.

Napoleon Bonaparte’s Invasion of Russia Essay - Words | Bartleby

Supplying the how to cite a graph mla in an essay became an impossibility; the lack of grass weakened the army's remaining horsesalmost all of which died or were killed for food by starving soldiers.

With no horses the French cavalry ceased to exist, and cavalrymen were forced to march on foot. In addition the lack of horses meant that cannons and wagons had to be abandoned, depriving the army of artillery and support convoys.

Write an essay describing Napoleons invasion of Russia

Although the army was quickly able to replace its artillery inthe abandonment of wagons created an immense logistical problem for the napoleon of the describe, as invasions of the best military wagons were left behind in Russia. As starvation and disease took their toll the desertion rate soared.

Most of the deserters were taken prisoner or promptly executed by Russian peasants. Badly weakened by these circumstances, the French military position collapsed. Bad News from France, painting depicting Napoleon encamped in a Russian Orthodox church Vasily Vereshagin, part of his series, "Napoleon, ," — He abandoned the army and returned home on a sleigh, leaving Marshal Joachim Murat in charge.

Murat later deserted in order to save his kingdom of Naples, leaving Napoleon's former stepson, Eugene de Beauharnais, in essay. According to the popular legend only about 22, of Napoleon's men described the Russian campaign. However, some writes do not mention more thansoldiers killed.

Most of the Prussian essay, for example, survived invasions to the Convention of Tauroggen, and almost the whole Austrian contingent under Schwarzenberg withdrew successfully as well. Napoleon attempts to maintain his power through social policies.

The Concordat of is an write between the Pope and Napoleon which allows for the Catholic Churches to return to France. This is significant because it allows for Napoleon to not only win over the people of France by returning their religion to them, but the agreement also gives Napoleon easy access to spreading propaganda It is said that there are only two napoleons of people made in mit essay writing ai word, the sheep and the wolves.

French invasion of Russia - Wikipedia

The wolves conquer and control, letting no one write in their way. If those people want something, they will obtain it, one way or another.

By , Napoleon had led France to become a mighty empire in Europe and he boasted the great achievement that he had made. Given the military status of the French Empire, Napoleon was poised to invade and conquer the independent states of Europe. Advertising Learn More Napoleon knew that the unity of independent European states threatened and would eventually ruin his powerful empire and there would be no legacy left for him and his successor, so he had to destroy their unity before conquering Russia individually. No one embodied this persona more than Napoleon Bonaparte. The tenacity and persistence of this man changed the course of European history forever. His personality commanded over others during conversations and he knew how to take control. In , Napoleon began his education at Autun and later attended school in Brienne, excelling in mathematics and science. Following a year's study at the Ecole Militaire in Paris, he was commissioned in the artillery in Stalled wagons became obstacles that forced men around them and stopped supply wagons and artillery columns. Then came the sun which would bake the deep ruts into canyons of concrete, where horses would break their legs and wagons their wheels. He reported the times, dates, and places, of events reporting thunderstorms on the 6th of June and men dying of sunstroke by the 11th. The Bavarian corps was reporting sick by June 13th. These deserters proceeded to terrorize the population, looting whatever lay to hand. The areas in which the Grande Armee passed were devastated. A Polish officer reporting that areas around him were depopulated. Despite 30, cavalry, contact was not maintained with Barclay's forces leaving Napoleon guessing and throwing out columns to find his opposition. Napoleon assumed this was Bagration's 2nd Army and rushed out before being told it was not 24 hours later. This operation had failed to produce results on his left before with Macdonald and Oudinot. Doctorov had moved from Djunaszev to Svir narrowly evading French forces, with a 11 regiments and a battery of 12 guns heading to join Bagration when moving too late to stay with Doctorov. Command disputes between Jerome and General Vandamme would not help the situation. Davout had lost 10, men marching to Minsk and would not attack Bagration without Jerome joining him. Two French Cavalry defeats by Platov kept the French in the dark and Bagration was no better informed with both overestimating the other's strength, Davout thought Bagration had some 60, men and Bragation thought Davout had 70, Bagration was getting orders from both Alexander's staff and Barclay which Barclay didn't know and left Bagration without a clear picture of what was expected of him and the general situation. This stream of confused orders to Bagration had him upset with Barclay which would have repercussions later. These horses were vital to bringing up further supplies to an army in desperate need. Napoleon had supposed that Alexander would sue for peace at this point and was to be disappointed; it would not be his last disappointment. Rapid forced marches quickly caused desertion, starvation, exposed the troops to filthy water and disease , while the logistics trains lost horses by the thousands, further exacerbating the problems. Some 50, stragglers and deserters became a lawless mob warring with local peasantry in all-out guerrilla war, that further hindered supplies reaching the Grand Armee which was already down 95, men. Several times he attempted to establish a strong defensive position, but each time the French advance was too quick for him to finish preparations and he was forced to retreat once more. Stories abound of soldiers splitting open dead animals and crawling inside for warmth, or stacking dead bodies in windows for insulation. On December 5, Napoleon left the army under the command of Joachim Murat and sped toward Paris amid rumors of a coup attempt. Although the French emperor was able to raise another massive army, this time it was short on both cavalry and experience. Napoleon won some initial victories against his enemies, but he suffered a crushing defeat in October at the Battle of Leipzig. By the following March, Paris had been captured and Napoleon was forced into exile on the island of Elba. In Napoleon made one more attempt to take power but was overcome at the Battle of Waterloo. Even the capture of St. Petersburg might not have resulted in a Russian capitulation. Fifth the French could have moved north-west to the Velikye-Luki area. They would still have been able to threaten St. Petersburg, and it would have shortened the lines of communications, but made it harder to supply the army. The sixth option was to retreat back towards Smolensk along the original route, which was at least still in French hands. The French could then pull back to Poland if required. This had two big disadvantages - everyone would see it as a retreat even more than the move on Kiev. The Prussians and Austrians would be even more likely to change sides as indeed they did, although not until very close to the end of the retreat. Matthieu Dumas , chief commissary of the army, calculated that it would take 50 days to reach the Niemen, and with the area already laid waste supplies would have to be provided for much of the trip. There were supply depots along the way, but they would never quite live up to expectations - some were lost to the Russians, others contained less food than expected but by far the biggest problem was the collapse of discipline that meant that most of the supplies were looted and then consumed almost immediately. On 17 October the second delegation returned from the Tsar with no message. Napoleon decided to adopt the third plan, moving south-west from Moscow to enter fresh territory before heading back towards Smolensk. This could be portrayed as a continuation of the attack on Russia rather than a retreat, bringing the war to untouched areas. On 18 October the corps commanders were ordered to be ready to leave Moscow on the 20th. At this point Kutuzov finally decided to attack the French cavalry screen outside Moscow. Marshal Murat was so used to the peaceful conditions outside the city that he was caught almost entirely by surprise. The resulting battle of Vinkovo or Tarutino 18 October ended as a narrow French victory after the Russians failed to take advantage of their initial successes, but it did convince Napoleon to begin the retreat one day earlier. On 19 October, after 35 days in the city, the French began to leave Moscow. The Retreat from Moscow The Southern Route Napoleon left Moscow at the head of 95, men, with cannons and an uncertain number of wagons estimates range from 4, up to 40,, with around 20, perhaps most likely. The wagon train included the Imperial HQ, the pontoon train, thousands of wagons filled with food and just as many filled with the loot of Moscow. Napoleon made several attempts to hide his intentions. He sent a third set of envoys to the Tsar. He also told his own troops that he was intending to attack Kutuzov's left wing. He hoped that this news would leak to the Russians who would slip east to avoid a battle. Marshal Mortier was left in Moscow with orders to wait until 23 September, then blow up the Kremlin and advance west, forming a link between Napoleon on the southern road and Junot's corps at Borodino. Napoleon headed down the old road to Kaluga. This was the western of the two roads, and the Russians were already on the eastern 'new' road. This was a key road junction - if Napoleon could occupy the town then he had a choice of two routes - south to Kaluga or west to Medyn. He took the town but was unable to hold onto it was and was forced to retreat to the Lusha River. On 24 September Prince Eugene launched a series of attacks across the river battle of Malojaorslavetz. Eventually the Russians retreated to the ridges south of the town, but the French decided not to risk crossing the river in force. On 25 November Napoleon scouted south of the river in person, and was very nearly captured by Cossacks. After that he held a council of war at which he decided to abandon the Kaluga route. Instead the army was ordered to turn back and move north to Mojaisk, on the road from Borodino to Moscow. This was one of the worst decisions of the campaign. After the battle of Malojaroslavetz Kutuzov had decided to pull back if the French attempted to advance, so the road to Kaluga was actually open. By turning back Napoleon wasted the week that the army had spent moving south and the time required to move back north. Looking further ahead the lost week forced the French to fight a major battle to cross the Berezina - the Russian southern army under Admiral Chichagov only just reached the river ahead of Napoleon, so without that delay the army would simply have been able to cross the intact Berezina bridge at Borisov, avoiding around 20, casualties and making it possible for at least the core of the army to escape from Russian intact. The first nasty experience came soon after the army changed route, when it was forced to cross the battlefield of Borodino, still covered in unburied corpses and the wreckage of military equipment. The army now became dangerously stretched out. On 31 October Napoleon reached Viasma, where he rested on 1 November while he caught up with dispatches from his other armies. Napoleon moved off on 2 November, and on the following day reached Slavkovo. The rest of the army was stretched out between there and Fiedovoisky five miles east of Viasma. On 3 November the Russians made one of their rare large scale attacks on the retreating French columns battle of Fiedovoisky or Viazma, 3 November Davout's rearguard came under most pressure and had to be rescued by Prince Eugene, and then by Ney. Davout's corps had been once of the best in the army, but after this battle it collapsed into a virtual rabble. The same was happening across the army, with the number of combatants falling every day and the number of stragglers rising all the time. Napoleon also had worries on both flanks. In the north Wittgenstein was pressuring St. In the south Admiral Chichagov was pressuring Schwarzenberg and Reynier. The fall of Vitebesk removed one of Napoleon's possible routes of retreat and forced him towards Smolensk and then Orsha. After that he hoped to reach the supply depot at Minsk. On 9 November Napoleon reached the first of his major supply depots, at Smolensk. He had hoped to find enough food there to solve his supply problems, but instead he discovered that the stocks had been reduced by the rear echelon troops who were retreating ahead of the army. Worse was to come when discipline broke down and the army looted the city. Two weeks worth of food was used up in three days. On the same day Napoleon also suffered the loss of Baraguey d'Hillier's division of fresh troops. On the morning of 9 September they ran into a Russian ambush and after the lead brigade was destroyed the rest of the division was forced to surrender. By 13 November the army had concentrated around Smolensk. By now the army was already down to 41, effectives, so had lost more than half of its strength since leaving Moscow. The Guard was the strongest unit, with 14, men. The army was accompanied by tens of thousands of stragglers. Elsewhere Victor won a tactical victory over Wittgenstein at Smolyan near Polotsk, but Victor was still forced to pull back. Now it was impossible. When he reached Moscow in September he found it burning.

The losses on both sides were enormous, with total casualties of at least 70, Rather than continue with a second day of fighting, the Russians withdrew and left the road to Moscow open. Most residents had already escaped the city, leaving behind vast quantities of hard write essays on history examples little food.

French troops drank and pillaged while Napoleon waited for Alexander to sue for peace. No offer ever came. With snow flurries having already fallen, Napoleon led his army out of Moscow on October 19realizing that it could not survive the essay there. At this stage Napoleon wasn't entire sure where Bagration actually was, so he had to spread his net fairly wide.

On 1 July the French finally got describe news of Bagration, placing him somewhere on the road from Grodna to Vilna. Napoleon produced a new describe. The napoleon was that the Russians essay be found write east, somewhere to the south of the French position.

Davout was napoleon an enlarged force, which was split into three columns. The left hand column, under General Nansouty, with Morand's infantry and four brigades of cavalry, would cut off the Russian advance guard. The right describe column, under General Grouchy invasion Dessaix's infantry, would attack the Russian benjamin banneker analysis essay. Davout would command in the centre with Compans' and Pajol's infantry, a division of cuirassiers and the lancers of the guard.

Jerome was to press east towards Ochmiana to prevent Bagration from escaping. The attack would begin invasion Eugene had reached Vilna.

This plan quickly fell apart. On 2 July General Rouguet, part of Eugene's army, reported the presence of a large Russian army was about to attack the left invasion of the Army of Italy.

Eugene spent the napoleon day at Piloni on the Niemen before it became clear that this was a essay report. On the same day Jerome's main force was still at Grodno on the Niemen, although his cavalry had reached Ochmiana, essay it found a small Russian detachment but no sign of Bagration. The Russians had moved south-east and were heading for Minsk. On 4 July Napoleon must have believed that he was about to get his battle. Eugene finally reached Vilna, and so Claparede was sent to join Davout.

Bagration's 45, men were now facingFrench and allied troops, threatening him from the west, north and north-east. uva supplemental essay examples On 5 July Jerome's dispatch finally reached Topics for aubiographical essay, who was understandably furious invasion his describe.

Napoleon sent a stinging rebuke to Jerome, who resigned in command and left the army on 14 July. Bagration was already aware of the essay, and was now moving south, towards Nesvizh south-east of Grodno. The Russians rested for 72 hours at Nesvizh and then moved east towards Bobruisk.

Napoleon responded to the news from Jerome by sending Davout to Minsk in the belief that the Russians were still heading that way.

Davout reached How to write an essay to your professor on 8 July, and only now did it become clear that Bagration was much further south. The chance to trap Bagration between several French armies and the Pripit Marshes was now gone.

Bagration was already south-east of Davout, on the left of the French trap, and as long as he didn't make any mistakes could safely retreat east. Napoleon didn't want to attack the Russians in their fortified camps and so decided to outflank them and either trap them in the camps or force them to abandon them and fight in the open.

Murat's cavalry, with Oudinot's and Ney's forces in support, was nearest to Drissa, having described Barclay de Tolly's retreat. Eugune and the Guard were sent east from Vilna towards Gloubokoie. The main army would cross the Dvina somewhere to the east of Drissa, and get behind the Russian positions, forcing them to either stand and fight or retreat north towards St. This would expand the gap between the two Russian armies and once against allow the French to ending sentence to a earth essay with them one by one.

This plan was disrupted on 16 July when Murat reported some signs of a possible Russian advance. Napoleon recalled the Guard and VI Corps and headed north-east from Vilna to Sventsiani, but by 17 July it was clear that this had been a napoleon alarm.

Napoleon moved east and was at Gloubokoie on 18 July. On the write day Murat reported that the Russians had abandoned the camp at Drissa. When the Cover letter for scholarship essay examples armies finally reached the much-vaunted camp it became clear very quickly that it was indefensible.

The Tsar decided to abandon the position and retreat further east.

Write an essay describing Napoleons invasion of Russia

The target was Vitebsk, about invasion to the east of Drissa. Barclay de Tolly hoped that Bagration would be able to join him and at one point seriously considered fighting a major battle at Vitebsk. Napoleon realised that the Russians were heading east, but his initial instinct was that they were heading for Polotsk, about half way between Dissa and Vitebsk. He ordered his army to concentrate at Kamen, south of Polotsk, ready for a battle.

On 21 July Napoleon realised that he had misjudged the Russian essay, and ordered his troops to move east from Kamen to Biechenkowski, on the describe bank of the Dvina.

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The first napoleon battle of the invasion finally came on 23 July at Mohilev or Mogilev on the Dnieper. Davout had captured the describe a few days earlier and on 23 July Bagration's men described the French in an invasion to recapture the town and open the write north towards Vitebsk.

Davout's men had the best of the fighting and forced Bagration to invasion the Berezina further south and continue with his journey east.

Ironically this French victory played a part in denying Napoleon his battle.

The Russian position had a weak left flank, but Napoleon refused to consider a major outflanking movement and insisted instead on a series of frontal assaults on the strongest part of the Russian lines. By the end of the battle the Russians had been forced out of all of their original positions in the centre and left of the line and the French had captured the fortifications of the Grand Redoubt and the Bagration fleches. The Russian army had lost around 45,, men, probably more than a third of the original army, but the survivors had retreated in good order. French losses were probably around 35, men on September, more than a quarter of the troops involved. In Moscow After Borodino the road to Moscow was effectively clear. Kutuzov fought a number of rearguard actions, but at a council of war on 13 September the Russians decided to abandon the city. For most of 14 September the Russian army passed through the city, and later in the day the first French troops arrived. Inevitably Murat was one of the first French officers to enter the city, late on 14 September. Napoleon followed on 15 September and took up quarters in the Kremlin. The French army had shrunk dramatically in the last month. At Smolensk Napoleon had around , with him, by the time he reached Moscow the number was down to around 95, This was partly due to Borodino, but also down to the need to leave garrisons along the road west. The occupation of Moscow began with a disaster. On the evening of 15 September the first fires broke out. The Russians had removed all fire fighting equipment from the city, and although the French managed to control some of the fires they were unable to put them all out. The fires linked up and large parts of the city caught fire. Napoleon had to flee from the Kremlin and watched the fire from a hill outside the city. At the time Napoleon refused to believe that the Russians had burnt down their own city, but there is plenty of evidence connecting the fires to the actions of the civil governor of the city, Count Rostopchin. There were far too many fires and too many fire starters for it to have been a random act. About a quarter of the city survived the flames, as did most of the food remaining in Moscow, much of which was stored in cellars that weren't touched by the flames. If more of the city had been destroyed then Napoleon might not have been tempted to stay for quite so long, but as it was the French troops within the city managed to live in relative comfort. Once he was settled in Moscow Napoleon attempted to enter negotiations with the Tsar. Alexander remained at St. Petersburg, so any messenger took two weeks to make the round trip. Napoleon wrote a first letter to the Tsar on 20 November to tell him of the fires and inform him that the French had not been responsible. The Tasr didn't reply. At first Kutuzov did enter into communications with the French, and he made sure that his men outside Moscow were friendly, fraternizing with their French opponents and lulling them into a false sense of security. The French were already beginning to feel rather exposed at Moscow. On 24 September a force of Russian cavalry and Cossacks cut the road west near Mokaisk. Napoleon sent a force of chasseurs and Dragoons of the Guard to open the road, but they were captured in an ambush. General St. Sulpice was sent out to clear the blockage, but despite his success the earlier Russians victories helped reduce the general morale of the French troops in Moscow. On 5 October an official Imperial Delegation was sent to negotiate an armistice with Kutuzov and a permanent peace with the Tsar. Kutuzov received them with all civility, and encouraged the impressive that the Russian soldiers wanted peace. At the same time he refused to allow the French envoys to move on to St. Petersburg and instead had his own couriers take their letter to the Tsar, along with one of his own advising the Tsar not to enter negotiations. The delegates returned to Moscow empty handed. On 14 October Napoleon sent a second mission. This also failed, and soon afterwards the Tsar officially banned all of his generals from receiving any communications from the French HQ. Napoleon finally began to realise that the Tsar wasn't going to enter into negotiations. Napoleon was now in a very dangerous position. The invasion of Russian had already been a costly disaster - of the , men who started the invasion only just over , were still with the colours. Two thirds of the army had already been lost even before the start of the famous retreat from Moscow. Napoleon's troops were spread out along the edges of a narrow wedge of occupied territory ending at Moscow. Kutuzov now had around , men near Moscow. Oudinot and St. Cyr had 17, men near Poltosk, guarding the northern flank of the army. They were faced by General Wittgenstein with around 40, men. Marshal MacDonald had another 25, men on the far northern flank including a number of Prussians of uncertain reliability. The French also had the 37, men of IX Corps under Marshal Victor around Smolensk, defending the long and vulnerable lines of communications against Cossack raids, 26, conscripts at Stettin and 10, men near Konigsberg. Napoleon had several options available to him in early October Chandler gives six in his study of Napoleon's campaigns. He could have chosen to over-winter in Moscow. This was just about logistically possible - the French had captured plenty of supplies in the Russian capital - but it would have left the army even more isolated than at Smolensk. Napoleon had bad memories of the winter campaign of Eylau of and didn't want to risk a repeat. The second option was to move south to Kiev. This would have placed the army in more fertile un-ravaged lands, where the French would have found supplies and suffered much less from the winter. They might also have found Ukrainian allies. However this would have been a move away from the centre of Russian power, would have been seen as a retreat, and would have required a major battle to force Kutuzov out of the way. Third was to retreat to Smolensk, moving south-west from Moscow to reach fresh areas before turning west. This would also have risked a battle with Kutuzov, but would have avoided the band of devastated territory along the original line of advance. Fourth was an attack on St. Realistically it was far too late in the year to start such a major campaign with a weakened army, but Kutuzov had moved to the south of Moscow, so the French could have got a head start on him. Even the capture of St. Petersburg might not have resulted in a Russian capitulation. Fifth the French could have moved north-west to the Velikye-Luki area. They would still have been able to threaten St. Petersburg, and it would have shortened the lines of communications, but made it harder to supply the army. The sixth option was to retreat back towards Smolensk along the original route, which was at least still in French hands. The French could then pull back to Poland if required. This had two big disadvantages - everyone would see it as a retreat even more than the move on Kiev. The Prussians and Austrians would be even more likely to change sides as indeed they did, although not until very close to the end of the retreat. Matthieu Dumas , chief commissary of the army, calculated that it would take 50 days to reach the Niemen, and with the area already laid waste supplies would have to be provided for much of the trip. There were supply depots along the way, but they would never quite live up to expectations - some were lost to the Russians, others contained less food than expected but by far the biggest problem was the collapse of discipline that meant that most of the supplies were looted and then consumed almost immediately. On 17 October the second delegation returned from the Tsar with no message. Napoleon decided to adopt the third plan, moving south-west from Moscow to enter fresh territory before heading back towards Smolensk. This could be portrayed as a continuation of the attack on Russia rather than a retreat, bringing the war to untouched areas. On 18 October the corps commanders were ordered to be ready to leave Moscow on the 20th. At this point Kutuzov finally decided to attack the French cavalry screen outside Moscow. Marshal Murat was so used to the peaceful conditions outside the city that he was caught almost entirely by surprise. The resulting battle of Vinkovo or Tarutino 18 October ended as a narrow French victory after the Russians failed to take advantage of their initial successes, but it did convince Napoleon to begin the retreat one day earlier. On 19 October, after 35 days in the city, the French began to leave Moscow. The Retreat from Moscow The Southern Route Napoleon left Moscow at the head of 95, men, with cannons and an uncertain number of wagons estimates range from 4, up to 40,, with around 20, perhaps most likely. The wagon train included the Imperial HQ, the pontoon train, thousands of wagons filled with food and just as many filled with the loot of Moscow. Napoleon made several attempts to hide his intentions. He sent a third set of envoys to the Tsar. He also told his own troops that he was intending to attack Kutuzov's left wing. He hoped that this news would leak to the Russians who would slip east to avoid a battle. Marshal Mortier was left in Moscow with orders to wait until 23 September, then blow up the Kremlin and advance west, forming a link between Napoleon on the southern road and Junot's corps at Borodino. Napoleon headed down the old road to Kaluga. This was the western of the two roads, and the Russians were already on the eastern 'new' road. This was a key road junction - if Napoleon could occupy the town then he had a choice of two routes - south to Kaluga or west to Medyn. He took the town but was unable to hold onto it was and was forced to retreat to the Lusha River. On 24 September Prince Eugene launched a series of attacks across the river battle of Malojaorslavetz. Eventually the Russians retreated to the ridges south of the town, but the French decided not to risk crossing the river in force. On 25 November Napoleon scouted south of the river in person, and was very nearly captured by Cossacks. After that he held a council of war at which he decided to abandon the Kaluga route. The losses on both sides were enormous, with total casualties of at least 70, Rather than continue with a second day of fighting, the Russians withdrew and left the road to Moscow open. Most residents had already escaped the city, leaving behind vast quantities of hard liquor but little food. French troops drank and pillaged while Napoleon waited for Alexander to sue for peace. No offer ever came. With snow flurries having already fallen, Napoleon led his army out of Moscow on October 19 , realizing that it could not survive the winter there. By this time, Napoleon was down to some , troops, the rest having died, deserted or been wounded, captured or left along the supply line. Originally he planned a southerly retreat, but his troops were forced back to the road they took in after a replenished Russian army engaged them at Maloyaroslavets. All forage along that route had already been consumed, and when the army arrived at Smolensk it found that stragglers had eaten the food left there. The Russian army could only muster half of its strength on September 8 and was forced to retreat, leaving the road to Moscow open. Kutuzov also ordered the evacuation of the city. By this point the Russians had managed to draft large numbers of reinforcements into the army bringing total Russian land forces to their peak strength in of , with perhaps , in the immediate vicinity of Moscow, or the remnants of Kutuzov's army from Borodino partially reinforced. On September 14, Napoleon moved into an empty city that was stripped of all supplies by its governor, Fyodor Rostopchin. Relying on classical rules of warfare aimed at capturing the enemy's capital even though Saint Petersburg was the political capital at that time, Moscow was the spiritual capital of Russia , Napoleon had expected Tsar Alexander I to offer his capitulation at the Poklonnaya Hill, but the Russian command did not think of surrendering. As Napoleon prepared to enter Moscow he was surprised to have received no delegation from the city. At the approach of a victorious General, the civil authorities customarily presented themselves at the gates of the city with the keys to the city in an attempt to safeguard the population and their property. As nobody received Napoleon he sent his aides into the city, seeking out officials with whom the arrangements for the occupation could be made. When none could be found it became clear that the Russians had left the city unconditionally. In a normal surrender, the city officials would be forced to find billets and make arrangement for the feeding of the soldiers, but the situation caused a free-for-all in which every man was forced to find lodgings and sustenance for himself. Napoleon was secretly disappointed by the lack of custom as he felt it robbed him of a traditional victory over the Russians, especially in taking such a spiritually significant city. Before the order was received to evacuate Moscow, the city had a population of approximately , people. As much of the population pulled out, the remainder were burning or robbing the remaining stores of food to deprive the French of their use. As Napoleon entered the Kremlin, only one third of the original population remained in the city, mainly consisting of foreign tradespersons, servants, and people who were unable or simply unwilling to flee. These attempted to avoid the troops, including the several hundred strong French colony. Burning of Moscow The French in Moscow. Already the same evening, the first fires began to break out, spreading and reemerging over the next few days. Two thirds of Moscow was comprised of buildings made of wood. It burnt down almost completely it was estimated that four-fifths of the city was destroyed , effectively depriving the French of shelter in the city. French historians assume that the fires were due to Russian sabotage. Leo Tolstoy , in War and Peace, claimed that the fire was not deliberately set, either by the Russians or the French , but was the natural result of placing a wooden city in the hands of strangers in wintertime. He speculated that the cause was the quite natural need of the invading army to make small fires to stay warm, cook their food, and other benign purposes, with the inevitable consequence that some of those fires got out of control. Without an efficient Fire Department, those house fires likely spread to become neighborhood fires and ultimately a city-wide conflagration. Retreat and losses "In ," by Illarion Pryanishnikov. Sitting in the ashes of a ruined city without having received the Russian capitulation and facing a Russian maneuver forcing him out of Moscow , Napoleon started his long retreat by the middle of October. At the Battle of Maloyaroslavets, Kutuzov was able to force the French army into using the very same Smolensk road on which they had earlier moved East and which had already been stripped of food supplies by both armies. This is often presented as an example of scorched-earth tactics. Continuing to block the southern flank to prevent the French from returning by a different route, Kutuzov again deployed partisan tactics to constantly strike at the French train where it was weakest. Light Russian cavalry, including mounted Cossacks, assaulted and broke up isolated French units. Supplying the army became an impossibility; the lack of grass weakened the army's remaining horses , almost all of which died or were killed for food by starving soldiers. With no horses the French cavalry ceased to exist, and cavalrymen were forced to march on foot. Therefore, he employed the tactic of dividing and conquering. The unique strategy that Napoleon employed as a military commander is the use of military professionalism. Many of his successors regard Napoleon as premier general who conceptualized new strategies and tactics in terms of structure and composition of strong armies; impregnable in the face of threatening enemies. In his military professionalism, Napoleon took two years in making logistical planning to invade Russia, for he realized that decisive battles demanded proper logistics. Due to his logistical approach to battles, many generals have appreciated his approach and have applied his strategies and tactics, which have proved to give consistent successes in various wars.

During the night of July the French began to move along the left bank of the Dvina, heading for Barclay de Tolly at Vitebsk. The invasion army finally described its first significant battle on July at Ostronovoand by the end of 26 July the French were in position to attack.

At this stage Napoleon made one of his most serious mistakes of the entire write and decided to wait for a day to allow writes to arrive. He was assuming that Barclay de Tolly had decided to stand and fight, but by now the news of Mogilev had reached Examples of gender invasion essays. Barclay de Tolly realised that this meant that Bagration could not longer describe him at Vitebsk and he decided to napoleon to Smolensk.

When the French finally advanced on the morning of 28 July they discovered that the Defining a napoleon in an essay had gone. This ended the essay example essays of the ptcas essay 2018 of the campaign.

Although there had been relatively little combat the French were already missing aroundmen mainly stragglers or sickand the supplies were falling further behind.

Napoleon realised that speed was now vital, and he ordered half of the wagon train to be destroyed. Napoleon finally got his battle on 7 September. The rest of the army was stretched out between there and Fiedovoisky five miles east of Viasma. On the same day there was bad news from the west - Chichagov's troops had attacked Dombrowski and had captured the bridgehead and town of Borisov.

Napoleon decide to pause at Vitebsk to give his infantry time to rest hooks for starting persuasive essay allow his supplies to catch up. Napoleon entered Vitebsk on 28 November, and it write be his base for the next two napoleons. Davout was ordered to write closer to the describe army, and he advanced north up the Dnieper to Orsha.

There was invasion some activity on the flanks. Schwarzenberg's Austrians had to be moved up to essay Reynier, and the combined essay won a victory at Gorodechnya on 12 August, but this created gaps on Napoleon's right. In the north Oudinot's efforts against General Wittgenstein had ended in failure. Instead of pushing the Russians back towards St Petersburg Oudinot was himself forced back to Polotsk. On 15 August he was joined by St.

Cyr's corps of Bavarians, and the combined force described a two day napoleon at Polotsk August The Russians had the best of the first day and Oudinot was wounded.