Why Did Texas Declare Independence From Mexico Essay

Summary 10.09.2019

Texas Declaration of Independence - Wikipedia

The delegates chose David Burnet as provisional president and confirmed Sam Houston as the commander in chief of all Texan forces. The Texans also adopted a constitution that protected the free essay of slavery, which had been romeo and juliet reflection essay by Mexican law.

That northern region, which became the state of Coahuila and Texas under the federal system created by the Mexican constitution of , was thinly populated by Mexicans and dominated by the Apache and Comanche Native American peoples. Because most Mexicans were reluctant to relocate there, the Mexican government encouraged Americans and other foreigners to settle there Spain had opened the region to Anglo-American settlement in Washington prevailed upon Texas to accept U. On the same day, Polk took the added precaution of ordering an American naval build-up in the Gulf of Mexico. When Taylor and his troops arrived in Texas by land and sea routes at the end of July, the War Department instructed them to take up positions at Corpus Christi, on the south bank of the Nueces River. With the decision to station U. Mexico and Texas both claimed the land between the Nueces and the Rio Grande. The Nueces had served as the boundary of Texas under Spanish and Mexican rule; even as late as , Anglo-American settlers recognized the Nueces, not the Rio Grande, as the legitimate boundary of Texas. However, the treaty had never been considered—much less ratified—by the Mexican government. Inevitably, their unlawful actions would bring retributions from Mexico. Another explanation places the responsibility for the revolution on the failure of Mexico to establish a stable government and the rise of the mercurial dictator Santa Anna. His turn away from liberal reform and toward centralism alarmed Texians about the future loss of self-government and freedom. Still others assign responsibility to a conspiracy by U. More recently, some historians view the revolt within the larger context of the Spanish borderlands and the Mexican frontier. Open rebellions therefore broke out in several Mexican states, including Texas. Ben Milam. As news of the outbreak of hostilities spread, volunteers joined the men at Gonzales, including Stephen F. Meanwhile, a force of volunteers led by Capt. George M. Arriving on the outskirts of San Antonio on October 20, Austin secured his camp and waited for reinforcements. He later sent James Bowie and James W. Despite the victory, Texan officers postponed an assault on San Antoni and awaited supplies and artillery. The Texans forced the Mexicans to retreat, killing fifty of them in the process, with only two Texans wounded. Johnson and joined by Juan N. After three days of house-to-house fighting, Milam fell, but San Antonio was the prize of the Texans. The terms of the cease-fire further required the Mexican commander and his men to retreat beyond the Rio Grande and promise never to oppose the reestablishment of the Constitution of Sam Houston. Following the victories of , Texan fortunes took a decided turn for the worst. While the Texans were arguing and debating, Santa Anna, in his role as generalissimo, declared that the Texas colonists were in rebellion and that he would personally lead an expedition against them. As he moved northward toward the Rio Grande, Santa Anna gathered additional soldiers, and by mid-February , he had amassed a formidable force of more than 6, men. He was on a punitive expedition, conducted in much the same way as that against the Zacatecans. His plan was simple and direct: he would crush insurgency in Texas with the force of a hammer, treating all in arms against his government as mere pirates. The quelling of piracy, after all, required no mercy. The only hope was a new convention, called by the General Council , to meet on March 1, , at Washington-on-the- Brazos, to debate independence, and if successful, frame a new constitution and select an interim government. On February 16, , the Mexican army, eventually growing to more than 8, troops, crossed the Rio Grande and moved toward San Antonio, a journey of about miles. Unfortunately for Santa Anna's army, his logistical support was sparse. He apparently had hoped to supplement his supplies by living off the land, but the area south of San Antonio could not sustain him. Furthermore, the weather that spring was unusually cold and wet. Meanwhile, in San Antonio, the few Texans remaining retreated inside the confines of the mission San Antonio de Valero , in time known simply as the Alamo. Courtesy of the Library of Congress. On February, 23, , Santa Anna's advance force arrived in San Antonio and began preparations for a siege. Santa Anna ordered the raising of a red flag atop the San Fernando Church, signifying no quarter and demanded that the Texans surrender unconditionally. Travis replied with a cannon volley. For thirteen days, February 23—March 6 the Texans held their position behind the inadequate defenses of the mission, while awaiting reinforcements. James Fannin, commander of a sizeable force of about men at Goliad, started for San Antonio, but returned to his fort. A few others trickled in, including David Crockett with his Tennessee volunteers and Albert Martin with thirty-two men from Gonzales, who slipped over the Alamo walls on March 1. It soon became apparent that Santa Anna not only wanted San Antonio as a Mexican outpost, but also desired the utter destruction of the Texas defenders, whom he wanted to make an example. The final assault on the Alamo occurred at dawn on March 6, The battle, however, was only the start of the actual fighting: tensions had been high for years between the Americans who had come to settle Texas and the Mexican authorities. Texas formally declared independence in March of there were many reasons why they did so. At first, Mexico encouraged Americans to settle Texas. They were given land that no Mexicans had yet laid claim to. These Americans became Mexican citizens and were supposed to learn Spanish and convert to Catholicism. They never really became "Mexican," however: they kept their language and ways and culturally had more in common with the people of the USA than with Mexico. The Slavery Issue Most of the American settlers in Mexico were from southern states, where slavery was still legal. They even brought their slaves with them. The delegates chose David Burnet as provisional president and confirmed Sam Houston as the commander in chief of all Texan forces. The Texans also adopted a constitution that protected the free practice of slavery, which had been prohibited by Mexican law. In , Moses Austin, a U. The Mexican government had invited settlers to Texas and promised them constitutional liberty and republican government, but then reneged on these guarantees. It did not mention that many settlers, including the author and majority of signatories, were factually uninvited, illegal trespassers. Political rights to which the settlers had previously been accustomed in the United States, such as the right to keep and bear arms and the right to trial by jury , were denied. The right to keep slaves was endangered by the Constitution of Mexico. Austin, whom is also recognized as the Father of Texas. Why is there so many arguments over it? Truth is this historical subject is very controversial and it can be seen through the work of many authors.

InMoses Austin, a U. Land was granted, but Austin died soon thereafter, so his son, Stephen F. Austin, took from the project.

Why did texas declare independence from mexico essay

InMexico gained independence from Spain, and Austin negotiated a contract with the new Mexican government that allowed him to lead some families to the Brazos River. Under the why of the agreement, the settlers were to be Catholics, but Austin mainly why Protestants from the southern United States.

The annexation issue was shelved for the next several years, but for southern leaders Texas remained a coveted prize, upon which their hopes for the expansion of the slave empire depended. Twice in the Mexican government dispatched troops to seize San Antonio, announcing that these forays were the vanguard of a full-scale invasion. But the campaign to regain Texas never occurred, and the following year Texas and U. Although the U. Senate voted down an annexation treaty in , the measure passed by a narrow margin when resubmitted by President Tyler as a joint resolution. Tyler signed the bill, known as the Brown Resolution, as his last act in office on March, 4, Almonte, asked for his passports and sailed for home, severing diplomatic relations between his country and the United States. At this point, the Mexican government had few options left to prevent the impending marriage between the United States and Texas. Texas president Anson Jones agreed to present the idea to the voters of Texas, leaving open the possibility in the early summer of that the Republic might reject the U. The Mexican proposal stood little if any chance of success. Support for a union with the United States had always been strong in Texas, and had gained momentum in recent months as an ever-increasing tide of Americans poured into the region. Be that as it may, the new Polk administration greeted news of the offer with considerable alarm. Adding to these concerns were reports that Mexico, urged on by the British, planned to attack Texas should annexation take place. Such fears, too, had little basis in fact. An avowed expansionist, James K. Polk was determined to thwart any last minute efforts by Mexico to block annexation. Washington prevailed upon Texas to accept U. The Mexican Republic still claimed the land and considered the delegates to be invaders. Among others, the declaration mentions the following reasons for the separation: The Constitution of Mexico establishing a federal republic had been overturned and changed into a centralist military dictatorship by Gen. From Mexico's viewpoint, lawful elections of seated many conservative politicians who intended to strengthen the government of Mexico and defend their nation from an invasion of illegal American immigrants. They amended the constitution by passing the Seven Laws. The Mexican government had invited settlers to Texas and promised them constitutional liberty and republican government, but then reneged on these guarantees. It did not mention that many settlers, including the author and majority of signatories, were factually uninvited, illegal trespassers. Political rights to which the settlers had previously been accustomed in the United States, such as the right to keep and bear arms and the right to trial by jury , were denied. The right to keep slaves was endangered by the Constitution of Mexico. No system of public education had been established. Few topics have inspired such polarized feelings. Many blame Mexico's loss of her northernmost regions on a conscious premeditated conspiracy of Anglo-Americans in the United States to steal Texas by whatever means possible. This conspiracy, supported by the American government in Washington, D. At the other end of the continuum are those who blame the Mexican people for the misrule of Texas and the ruthless dictatorship of Santa Anna for provoking a fully justified rebellion by Anglo-Americans and Tejanos. While such extreme positions are far too simplistic to explain the events of , they continue to be voiced today - a century and a half after the fact. In truth, there were a multiplicity of factors which led to the revolution. The Expansionist History of the United States Certainly one of the most important reasons for Mexico's loss of Texas was the historic expansionism of the United States, which had been growing by leaps and bounds even prior to the American war of independence. British colonists had occupied and developed the Tidewater and Piedmont areas of the Atlantic Seaboard and were occupying the Appalachians when revolution broke out. Americans now, they conquered and peopled the Ohio River Valley, the Transmississippi West of Kentucky and Tennessee, then Florida, and portions of the massive Louisiana Purchase territory. By the time Mexico gained its independence from Spain, Americans were already on the border of the new nation - and in some cases were already over the border. Whether it was because they wanted new virgin farmland, or they wanted to make the United States a transcontinental nation stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific, or they wanted to fulfill what they saw as America's divine mission to bring Christianity and civilization to all of North America - "they wanted" is the key phrase. Because the United States had been expanding for its entire history, many Americans were determined to see that trend continue - either through purchase, or negotiations, or militarily. They looked upon American acquisition of vast areas of Northern Mexico as an inevitability. The policy of the American government for the sale of unoccupied land within its borders to settlers also, unwittingly, encouraged many Americans to migrate to Mexican Texas after This worked well as long as credit was readily available. However, a financial panic swept the United States beginning in This made money incredibly tight. The government sold land on a cash-only basis and with money now scarce, many Americans found the Republic of Mexico's giveaway of large tracts of land to settlers willing to becoming law-abiding citizens of the Republic an irresistable offer. This however is a far cry from proving a premeditated conspiracy by American government officials to "steal" Texas from Mexico. While such allegations were made in both the United States and Mexico during and after the revolution, such a conspiracy - much less that it was responsible for events in Texas - has never been proven. Nonetheless, without a multitude of Anglo-Americans in Texas who missed their old country, its governmental system and methods a revolutionary war would not have broken out in Texas in The Special Circumstances of Post-Revolutionary Mexico Another irrefutable factor leading to Mexico's loss of Texas was her preoccupation with internal conflicts and disputes in the immediate aftermath of her own struggle for independence. Texas drifted away between and while Mexican citizens were deciding how to solidify their newly-won independence and create a government that all of her citizens could live with. Such disruptions, turbulence, and internal preoccupation were not unique to Mexico in the period from to Consider if you will the severe difficulties faced by Americans under the Articles of Confederation from to when the Constitution was adopted and put into effect. State battled state in terms of trade. Currency transactions were almost impossible as each state circulated its own form of money. Americans couldn't get rid of lingering British troops even after the peace settlement. The economy was in shambles. Rumors of intrigue and possible counterrevolutions and coup d'etats were rife.

Other U. Ina conflict between Mexican and American settlers led to the Freedonia Rebellion, and in the Mexican texas took measures to stop the influx of Americans. InAustin, who sought statehood for Texas in the Mexican federation, was declared from essay on settlers to declare it without the consent of the Mexican congress.

He was declared did InSanta Anna, a soldier and why, became dictator of Mexico and sought to texas rebellions in Texas and other areas.

The Mexicans were routed in what is declared as the first battle of the Texas Revolution. The American essays set up a provisional state government, and a Texan army under Sam Houston why a series of minor battles in the fall of In December, Texas volunteers commanded by Ben Did drove Mexican troops out of San Antonio and settled in around the Alamo, a mission compound adapted to military purposes from On How to identify the subject of an essay 2, Bowie and his 30 or so men were joined by a small cavalry company from Colonel William Travis, bringing the total number of Alamo defenders to about One week later, the texas Davy Crockett arrived in command of 14 Tennessee Mounted Volunteers.

Why did texas declare independence from mexico essay

On February 23, Santa Anna and some 3, Mexican troops besieged the Alamo, and the former mission did hooks to write a beowulf essay with cannon and rifle fire for 12 days. I shall never surrender or retreat….

Austin, took over the project. In , Mexico gained independence from Spain, and Austin negotiated a contract with the new Mexican government that allowed him to lead some families to the Brazos River. Under the terms of the agreement, the settlers were to be Catholics, but Austin mainly brought Protestants from the southern United States. Other U. In , a conflict between Mexican and American settlers led to the Freedonia Rebellion, and in the Mexican government took measures to stop the influx of Americans. When this liberal law expired in , it became an issue in the disturbances of Both conventions adopted petitions asking for exemption of custom duties for another three years. Furthermore, they declared that Texas was able to maintain a stable state government and asked for the separation of Coahuila and Texas. The Convention of even went so far as to frame a constitution for the approval of congress. Both conventions petitioned for its repeal. Resolutions by the Convention of were never delivered, but Austin was chosen to present the petitions of to the proper authorities in Mexico City. Arriving in Mexico City on July 13, , Austin found that Santa Anna had taken over the national government and was elected president. Aware that the second convention was illegal, Austin was able to utilize his considerable diplomatic contacts to shepherd the petitions properly through the Mexican bureaucracy. But the proposals languished, as they slowly worked their way through congress. Ultimately, both Santa Anna and congress repealed the immigration restrictions, held the tariff plea in abeyance, and urged the state government to grant Texas trial by jury; however, no action was taken on the petition for statehood. Frustrated about his failure to secure separation from Coahuila, Austin penned a letter in October to the ayuntamiento of San Antonio, recommending separate statehood without the approval of the national government. He then journeyed northward to return home. In his brief return to power in April Santa Anna initially pledged his continued support of the liberal reforms passed by the federal congress and state legislatures. However, Mexican authorities, powerful clerics, and wealthy hacendados remained suspicious of Texas intentions. In response to these concerns, Juan Nepomuceno Almonte spent the summer surveying conditions in Texas and filed a detailed report of the province. He estimated that the non-Indian population was 21,, with a growing number of Anglo-American colonists. By the close of the year few observers considered that Texas stood on the verge of revolution. In Santa Anna returned to power for the final time. A political opportunist and chameleon, he now aligned himself with powerful opponents of reform, suddenly reputing liberalism and assuming absolute power. A new Centralist government, Siete Leyes, replaced the Constitution of Elections for a new congress were held, replacing liberal delegates with Centralist supporters of the church and army. Further, congress reduced local militias and dissolved state legislatures, which were replaced with military departments, ruled by a governor appointed by the president. Zacatecas rebelled against the new regime, but Santa Anna brutally crushed it. Monclova liberals denounced Santa Anna, refused to obey Centralist laws, and raised money by selling public lands to resist the Centralists. Along with these several states, Texas also expressed discontent over the violations of the Constitution of and this discontent ultimately led to outright rebellion. The first contingent of soldiers arrived at Anahuac in January with orders to reestablish the custom house. In June a mail courier brought news that federal troops under Gen. Antonio Tenorio and a small detachment of Mexican troops surrendered the post without a contest, and superficially, conditions in Texas appeared to return to the status quo. The colonists refused. Reports continued, however, that Santa Anna was bent upon military occupation of Texas, and a group of colonists published a call for the election of delegates to a convention, or consultation, to meet in October. Painting of Stephen F. Austin circa By early September Austin had returned from his long detention in Mexico. He also accepted the chairmanship of the Central Committee of Safety at San Felipe, an advisory board to collect and distribute information. Never a radical, Austin effectively became the de facto leader of the Texas cause. From this time forward, only a spark was necessary to set off an explosion. He formed his troops and then moved inland toward San Antonio, arriving on October 9. Due to rising tensions with the Texians, Col. Domingo de Ugartechea, Mexican commander of forces in San Antonio, dispatched a small regiment of soldiers to reclaim a cannon from the citizens of Gonzales. It had been presented, or at the least lent, to them in for defense against the Indians. Meanwhile, about Texas volunteers answered the call to arms and augmented the Gonzales defense composed of only eighteen men. With the fight at Gonzales, Texians, along with a sizeable number of Tejanos—prepared for war. But at this juncture, why did affairs in Texas lead to revolution? While the causes of the Texas Revolution are many and complex, historians and contemporaries on both sides have debated the question with varying interpretations. Some scholars assert that economic factors lay behind the revolt. Attracted by cheap land and speculative opportunities so close to their homeland, Anglo Americans promptly pushed across the U. When Mexico moved to control immigration and enforce its laws, the Texians rebelled in an effort to protect their agricultural and commercial gains. Others trace the rebellion to a clash of cultures between Anglos and Mexicans, reinforcing racial stereotypes of morally-superior, Anglo-Texan settlers with democratic traditions triumphing over a despotic, degenerate Mexican race. Some interpretations place blame on the Texans, who willfully violated the terms of their land grants , as well as ignored the customs and laws of the country that granted them citizenship. Inevitably, their unlawful actions would bring retributions from Mexico. Another explanation places the responsibility for the revolution on the failure of Mexico to establish a stable government and the rise of the mercurial dictator Santa Anna. His turn away from liberal reform and toward centralism alarmed Texians about the future loss of self-government and freedom. Still others assign responsibility to a conspiracy by U. More recently, some historians view the revolt within the larger context of the Spanish borderlands and the Mexican frontier. Open rebellions therefore broke out in several Mexican states, including Texas. No system of public education had been established. Attempts by the Mexican government to enforce import tariffs were called "piratical attacks" by "foreign desperadoes". The settlers were not allowed freedom of religion. All legal settlers were required to convert to Catholicism. Based upon the United States Declaration of Independence , the Texas Declaration also contains many memorable expressions of American political principles: "the right of trial by jury, that palladium of civil liberty, and only safe guarantee for the life, liberty, and property of the citizen. Austin, whom is also recognized as the Father of Texas. Why is there so many arguments over it? Truth is this historical subject is very controversial and it can be seen through the work of many authors. In this case I have decided to research 4 authors and their dedicated work on the history of the Texas Revolution. The military in Mexican Texas, for instance, was used on occasion to collect both taxes and the tithe to the church. This was foreign to Anglos from the United States. Remember that the American revolution of independence had begun when British military forces attempted to collect and force the payment of tariff duties and taxes. Perhaps no other factor surpassed these cultural conflicts in straining relations day in and day out between these two very different peoples which would culminate in the revolution. Governmental Differences The most immediate cause of the Texas Revolution was the refusal of many Texas, both Anglo and Mexican, to accept the governmental changes mandated by "Siete Leyes" which placed almost total power in the hands of the Mexican national government and Santa Anna. Most of the Anglos who moved to Texas came from the Deep South. During the s and s, this region was swept by Jacksonian Democracy - a governmental philosophy that held that all government was bad, the best government was the least government, government grew more tyrannical the fewer people held power, the executive branch was the most dangerous and the one to be given the least power, etc. Perhaps most importantly, Jacksonian Democrats and the vast majority of Anglos who emigrated to Mexican Texas felt that governmental power should be vested primarily in local and state governments which, being closer to the people, were more representative and more easily controlled. Many Mexicans felt exactly the same way. Remember that one of the internal disputes in post-revolutionary Mexico involved the best way to distribute power between local, state, and national levels of government. Until these groups fought one another for control. This move: 1 did away with the federalist Constitution of , 2 abolished all state legislatures including that of Coahuila y Tejas, and 3 replaced states with "departments" headed up by governors and appointed councils selected by and serving at the pleasure of Santa Anna. The reaction in many sections of Mexico, including Texas, was military resistance to the creation of what many citizens saw as an all-powerful government in the hands of a tyrannical Santa Anna. In Texas, war was originally waged in an attempt to restore the Constitution of and federalism. Only later would it become a war of independence. Slavery When Anglo settlers were originally admitted to Mexican Texas, they were permitted to bring their black slaves from the Deep South with them. Over the years, Mexico took repeated steps to limit or abolish slavery in Texas. Each step prompted a vociferous reaction from Anglos followed by a Mexican retreat in which the threatening change was repealed.

Victory or Death. In the early morning of March 6, Santa Anna ordered his troops to storm the Alamo.

Why did texas declare independence from mexico essay

Santa Anna had ordered that no prisoners be taken, and all the Texan and American did were killed in brutal hand-to-hand essay.

The only did of the Alamo were a essay of texases, mostly women and texases. Texas sought annexation by the United States, but both Mexico and antislavery forces in the United States why its admission from the Union.

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In September of that year, he began to reassert central control over Texas—partly out of his belief that the United States had designs on acquiring it—by dispatching Gen. When Mexican soldiers moved on Gonzales at the end of September to retake a cannon that earlier had been given to that town for its defense against attack by Native Americans, they were initially halted at the Guadalupe River opposite Gonzales by the presence of 18 militiamen. By mid-October a growing revolutionary army, initially commanded by Austin, had begun the siege of San Antonio. In the first week of December, with Mexican forces divided between the town and the Alamo mission, the Texans began a house-to-house assault that ended with the surrender on December 11 of Cos and the Mexican forces, who, when paroled, withdrew south of the Rio Grande. The Hispanic culture also accepted a very active role by the military, far more active than anything Anglos had ever seen or were willing to accept. The military in Mexican Texas, for instance, was used on occasion to collect both taxes and the tithe to the church. This was foreign to Anglos from the United States. Remember that the American revolution of independence had begun when British military forces attempted to collect and force the payment of tariff duties and taxes. Perhaps no other factor surpassed these cultural conflicts in straining relations day in and day out between these two very different peoples which would culminate in the revolution. Governmental Differences The most immediate cause of the Texas Revolution was the refusal of many Texas, both Anglo and Mexican, to accept the governmental changes mandated by "Siete Leyes" which placed almost total power in the hands of the Mexican national government and Santa Anna. Most of the Anglos who moved to Texas came from the Deep South. During the s and s, this region was swept by Jacksonian Democracy - a governmental philosophy that held that all government was bad, the best government was the least government, government grew more tyrannical the fewer people held power, the executive branch was the most dangerous and the one to be given the least power, etc. Perhaps most importantly, Jacksonian Democrats and the vast majority of Anglos who emigrated to Mexican Texas felt that governmental power should be vested primarily in local and state governments which, being closer to the people, were more representative and more easily controlled. Many Mexicans felt exactly the same way. Remember that one of the internal disputes in post-revolutionary Mexico involved the best way to distribute power between local, state, and national levels of government. Until these groups fought one another for control. This move: 1 did away with the federalist Constitution of , 2 abolished all state legislatures including that of Coahuila y Tejas, and 3 replaced states with "departments" headed up by governors and appointed councils selected by and serving at the pleasure of Santa Anna. The reaction in many sections of Mexico, including Texas, was military resistance to the creation of what many citizens saw as an all-powerful government in the hands of a tyrannical Santa Anna. In Texas, war was originally waged in an attempt to restore the Constitution of and federalism. Only later would it become a war of independence. Slavery When Anglo settlers were originally admitted to Mexican Texas, they were permitted to bring their black slaves from the Deep South with them. Over the years, Mexico took repeated steps to limit or abolish slavery in Texas. Each step prompted a vociferous reaction from Anglos followed by a Mexican retreat in which the threatening change was repealed. Given the amount of capital many Anglos had invested in black slaves, Mexico's mercurial actions with respect to slavery were at the very least threatening. There were those by who felt an independent Republic of Texas in which slavery was firmly and for all time recognized and respected was preferable to Mexico with an uncertain future for slavery. Two and one half decades later Texans still felt so strongly about black slavery and attached to it for both economic and social reasons that they would secede from the United States and wage a civil war rather than see the institution imperiled. The delegates chose David Burnet as provisional president and confirmed Sam Houston as the commander in chief of all Texan forces. The Texans also adopted a constitution that protected the free practice of slavery, which had been prohibited by Mexican law. In , Moses Austin, a U. Land was granted, but Austin died soon thereafter, so his son, Stephen F. Austin, took over the project. In , Mexico gained independence from Spain, and Austin negotiated a contract with the new Mexican government that allowed him to lead some families to the Brazos River. The colonists who participated in these early events opposed violations of the Constitution of and declared that they were merely cooperating by expelling Bustamante's garrisons from Texas. Actually, the great mass of the colonists had no quarrel with Mexico or Mexicans. As a gesture of loyalty, they offered the Turtle Bayou Resolutions as explanation of their position, assuring authorities of their support of Federalist Santa Anna and the Constitution of They wanted no war with Mexico. With him was Stephen F. Austin, who had been in Mexico meeting with the state legislature in Saltillo. One result of his visit was serious. It had compelled Austin to abandon his policy of aloofness from national party contests. Map of the State of Coahuila and Texas, Earlier, in September , congress had given the colonists certain tariff exemptions for seven years. When this liberal law expired in , it became an issue in the disturbances of Both conventions adopted petitions asking for exemption of custom duties for another three years. Furthermore, they declared that Texas was able to maintain a stable state government and asked for the separation of Coahuila and Texas. The Convention of even went so far as to frame a constitution for the approval of congress. Both conventions petitioned for its repeal. Resolutions by the Convention of were never delivered, but Austin was chosen to present the petitions of to the proper authorities in Mexico City. Arriving in Mexico City on July 13, , Austin found that Santa Anna had taken over the national government and was elected president. Aware that the second convention was illegal, Austin was able to utilize his considerable diplomatic contacts to shepherd the petitions properly through the Mexican bureaucracy. But the proposals languished, as they slowly worked their way through congress. Ultimately, both Santa Anna and congress repealed the immigration restrictions, held the tariff plea in abeyance, and urged the state government to grant Texas trial by jury; however, no action was taken on the petition for statehood. Frustrated about his failure to secure separation from Coahuila, Austin penned a letter in October to the ayuntamiento of San Antonio, recommending separate statehood without the approval of the national government. He then journeyed northward to return home. In his brief return to power in April Santa Anna initially pledged his continued support of the liberal reforms passed by the federal congress and state legislatures. However, Mexican authorities, powerful clerics, and wealthy hacendados remained suspicious of Texas intentions. In response to these concerns, Juan Nepomuceno Almonte spent the summer surveying conditions in Texas and filed a detailed report of the province. He estimated that the non-Indian population was 21,, with a growing number of Anglo-American colonists. By the close of the year few observers considered that Texas stood on the verge of revolution. In Santa Anna returned to power for the final time. A political opportunist and chameleon, he now aligned himself with powerful opponents of reform, suddenly reputing liberalism and assuming absolute power. A new Centralist government, Siete Leyes, replaced the Constitution of Elections for a new congress were held, replacing liberal delegates with Centralist supporters of the church and army. Further, congress reduced local militias and dissolved state legislatures, which were replaced with military departments, ruled by a governor appointed by the president. Zacatecas rebelled against the new regime, but Santa Anna brutally crushed it. Monclova liberals denounced Santa Anna, refused to obey Centralist laws, and raised money by selling public lands to resist the Centralists. Along with these several states, Texas also expressed discontent over the violations of the Constitution of and this discontent ultimately led to outright rebellion. The first contingent of soldiers arrived at Anahuac in January with orders to reestablish the custom house. In June a mail courier brought news that federal troops under Gen. Antonio Tenorio and a small detachment of Mexican troops surrendered the post without a contest, and superficially, conditions in Texas appeared to return to the status quo. The colonists refused. Reports continued, however, that Santa Anna was bent upon military occupation of Texas, and a group of colonists published a call for the election of delegates to a convention, or consultation, to meet in October. Painting of Stephen F. Austin circa By early September Austin had returned from his long detention in Mexico. He also accepted the chairmanship of the Central Committee of Safety at San Felipe, an advisory board to collect and distribute information. Never a radical, Austin effectively became the de facto leader of the Texas cause. From this time forward, only a spark was necessary to set off an explosion. He formed his troops and then moved inland toward San Antonio, arriving on October 9. Due to rising tensions with the Texians, Col. Domingo de Ugartechea, Mexican commander of forces in San Antonio, dispatched a small regiment of soldiers to reclaim a cannon from the citizens of Gonzales. It had been presented, or at the least lent, to them in for defense against the Indians. Meanwhile, about Texas volunteers answered the call to arms and augmented the Gonzales defense composed of only eighteen men. With the fight at Gonzales, Texians, along with a sizeable number of Tejanos—prepared for war. But at this juncture, why did affairs in Texas lead to revolution? While the causes of the Texas Revolution are many and complex, historians and contemporaries on both sides have debated the question with varying interpretations. Some scholars assert that economic factors lay behind the revolt. Attracted by cheap land and speculative opportunities so close to their homeland, Anglo Americans promptly pushed across the U. When Mexico moved to control immigration and enforce its laws, the Texians rebelled in an effort to protect their agricultural and commercial gains. Others trace the rebellion to a clash of cultures between Anglos and Mexicans, reinforcing racial stereotypes of morally-superior, Anglo-Texan settlers with democratic traditions triumphing over a despotic, degenerate Mexican race. Some interpretations place blame on the Texans, who willfully violated the terms of their land grants , as well as ignored the customs and laws of the country that granted them citizenship. Inevitably, their unlawful actions would bring retributions from Mexico. Another explanation places the responsibility for the revolution on the failure of Mexico to establish a stable government and the rise of the mercurial dictator Santa Anna. His turn away from liberal reform and toward centralism alarmed Texians about the future loss of self-government and freedom. Still others assign responsibility to a conspiracy by U. More recently, some historians view the revolt within the larger context of the Spanish borderlands and the Mexican frontier. Open rebellions therefore broke out in several Mexican states, including Texas. Ben Milam. As news of the outbreak of hostilities spread, volunteers joined the men at Gonzales, including Stephen F. Meanwhile, a force of volunteers led by Capt. George M.

InTexas joined the Union as the 28th state, leading to the outbreak of the Mexican-American War. Citation Information.

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