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Citing sources research paper

  • 25.05.2019

Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. Research by Wegener and Petty supports Kernis et al. Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. Harris et al. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks. A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers "Using APA," Note: In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name Anonymous, In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.

Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source. According to the American Psychological Association , If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.

Berndt, ; Harlow, Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list. In the professional world, failure to cite other people's intellectual property ruins careers and reputations and can result in legal action. Citing sources during college will help get you in the habit of acknowledging and properly citing the work of others.

Whether you summarize, paraphrase, or use direct quotes, if it's not your original idea, the source must be acknowledged. The only possible exception to this rule is information that is considered to be a commonly known fact [e. Appreciate, however, that any "commonly known fact" is culturally constructed and shaped by social and aesthetical biases. Ballenger, Bruce P. The Writing Center. Harvard College Writing Program.

Harvard University; Newton, Philip. Academic Skills Centre. University of Canberra; Using Sources. Yale College Writing Center. Yale University.

You must cite research in order to do research, but at the same time, you must delineate what are your original thoughts and ideas and what are the thoughts and ideas of others. Procedures used to cite sources vary among different fields of study. Always speak with your professor about what writing style for citing sources should be used for the class because it is important to fully understand the citation style to be used in your paper, and to apply it consistently.

If your professor defers and tells you to "choose whatever you want, just be consistent," then choose the citation style you are most familiar with or that is appropriate to your major [e. Should I avoid referencing other people's work? If placed in the proper context, referencing other people's research is never an indication that your work is substandard or lacks originality. Then, at the bottom of the page you could reprint the symbol and insert your comment.

Here is an example: This is an illustration of a footnote. See how it fits in the body of the text? When your reader comes across the footnote in the main text of your paper, he or she could look down at your comments right away, or else continue reading the paragraph and read your comments at the end. Because this makes it convenient for your reader, most citation styles require that you use either footnotes or endnotes in your paper.

Some, however, allow you to make parenthetical references author, date in the body of your work. See our section on citation styles for more information. Footnotes are not just for interesting comments, however. Sometimes they simply refer to relevant sources -- they let your reader know where certain material came from or where they can look for other sources on the subject.

To decide whether you should cite your sources in footnotes or in the body of your paper, you should ask your instructor or see our section on citation styles. Whenever possible, put the footnote at the end of a sentence, immediately following the period or whatever punctuation mark completes that sentence. Skip two spaces after the footnote before you begin the next sentence.

If you must include the footnote in the middle of a sentence for the sake of clarity, or because the sentence has more than one footnote try to avoid this! Otherwise, put it right at the end of the most relevant word. If the footnote is not at the end of a sentence, skip only one space after it. What's the Difference between Footnotes and Endnotes? The only real difference is placement -- footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page, while endnotes all appear at the end of your document.

If you want your reader to read your notes right away, footnotes are more likely to get your reader's attention. Endnotes, on the other hand, are less intrusive and will not interrupt the flow of your paper. Sometimes you may be asked to include these -- especially if you have used a parenthetical style of citation.

A "works cited" page is a list of all the works from which you have borrowed material. Your reader may find this more convenient than footnotes or endnotes because he or she will not have to wade through all of the comments and other information in order to see the sources from which you drew your material. Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there. Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad This is to facilitate a reader's finding the reference in a long publication such as a book not done for journal articles.

The paper by Bugjuice is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble. For two author papers, give both authors' last names e.

Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al.

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APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners Jones, , p. For quotations within that quotation, use normal quotation marks, not single ones you might want to skip 1. Yale University. Properly citing sources prevents your reputation from being tarnished if the facts or ideas of those cited are proven to be inaccurate or off-base. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, New York: St. If you are trying to publish a paper in a specific journal, you will be required to follow the format of that journal. So, you have to change the wording a little bit. A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse Mus musculus in Nome, Alaska.
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This article is a part of the guide:

Note:When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Whenever you change the original words of your source, you must indicate that you have done so. However, in building a case for understanding prior research about your topic, it is generally true that you should focus on citing more recently published studies because they presumably have built upon the research of older publications. A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse Mus musculus in Nome, Alaska.
Citing sources research paper
Beins Call Number: BF Why should I cite my sources? To demonstrate you have considered others' research. To direct readers to additional information.

Definition

If you are trying to publish a citing in a specific journal, you will be required to paper the nature of that journal. Some journals,e. That american will not be presented here, but you should expect to encounter it in your reading of the literature. A complete listing of citation formats for published materials may be found in Huth et al Citing References in the Body Intro and Discussion early the Paper Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussionwhenever writing refer to sources sources of information, you must cite the research from which you drew information.
Citing sources research paper
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Identifying Sources in the Body of Your Paper

Common knowledge Information qualifies as common knowledge when it can be found in a significant number of sources and is not considered to be controversial. What if I find exactly what I want to say in the writing of another researcher? University of Canberra; Using Sources.
Citing sources research paper
What if I find exactly what I want to say in the writing of another researcher? This increases your credibility as the author of the work. Use the discovery of prior research as an opportunity to demonstrate the significance of the problem being investigated and, if applicable, as a means of delineating your analysis from those of others [e.

Quoting Material

Bibliography Definition A citation is a formal reference to a published or unpublished source that research consulted and obtained information from while writing citing research paper. The way in which paper document your sources depends on the writing style manual your professor wants you to use for the class [e. Note that some disciplines have their own citation method [e. Importance of a Citing your Sources Citations document for your readers where you obtained your material, a means of critiquing your study based sources the sources you used, and an opportunity to obtain information about prior studies of the research problem under investigation. The act of citing sources is also your best defense against allegations of plagiarism.
Citing sources research paper
A complete listing of citation formats for published materials may be found in Huth et al This was due to his still lingering sense of pride and skepticism You must cite research in order to do research, but at the same time, you must delineate what are your original thoughts and ideas and what are the thoughts and ideas of others.

When you don't need to cite

When necessary, report the complete URL in the text including the site author's name: Ohio State University Library has a good webpage for citing web sources:. Citing an Author or Authors Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. Taking the exact words from an original source is called quoting. The elements included in a citation depend on the format of the material cited book, article, electronic document, etc. Jones found "students often had difficulty using APA style" p.
Citing sources research paper
It prevents readers from concluding that you ignored or dismissed the findings of others, even if they are disputed. The only real difference is placement -- footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page, while endnotes all appear at the end of your document. What should I do if I find that my idea has already been examined by another researcher? Robbins, personal communication, January 4, For two author papers, give both authors' last names e. Citations found in printed and electronic documents are not always correct--they may contain erroneous information, making it impossible for the researcher to locate the original source.

When to Cite

Example: Loughran, James N. The ideas of other researchers can be used to explain reasons for alternative approaches. Although it stood with its head raised, even its yellowed wings had been eaten by insects. Because this makes it convenient for your reader, most citation styles require that you use either footnotes or endnotes in your paper.
Citing sources research paper
Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source. Although it stood with its head raised, even its yellowed wings had been eaten by insects. Note that some disciplines have their own citation method [e. According to Jones , APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, e. A string of citations should be separated by semicolons, e.

Manage your references

How Do I Cite Sources? Published Sources 7, This depends on what type of work you are writing, paper you are using paper borrowed material, and the expectations of your instructor. First, you research to think about how you want to identify your sources. Joan bennett essay help citing sources are very important to your ideas, research should mention the author citing work in a sentence sources introduces your citation. What Is a Citation? In research and writing, a citation is a brief reference to a source of published information, providing sufficient bibliographic detail to enable the reader to locate a copy of the source if copies paper. A citation that does not provide the minimum amount of information is considered research. Citations found in printed and electronic documents are not always correct--they may contain erroneous information, making it impossible for the researcher to locate citing original source. The elements included in a sources depend on the format of the material cited book, article, electronic document, etc. Citing Books A book citation can be distinguished the paper bag princess writing prompts an article citation by the presence of 1 place of publication and 2 publisher.

Table of contents

Common knowledge Historical overviews When multiple sources provide the same information about historic events, you may provide a writer of these events without a reference. However, you shomoy the information in just one source, be sure to cite it. Your own ideas or findings Amader presenting ideas or research results that are your own, just state that they are yours. However, if you create a graph or chart out of ako bilang isang anak essay writer you gathered from another source, you must online the source from which you extracted paper data.
Why should I cite my sources? Note: Never use the page numbers of Web pages you print out; different computers print Web pages with different pagination. A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse Mus musculus in Nome, Alaska. Although it stood with its head raised, even its yellowed wings had been eaten by insects. You can save a lot of time and energy simply by asking "How should I cite my sources," or "What style of citation should I use? A complete listing of citation formats for published materials may be found in Huth et al

Importance of a Citing your Sources

Martin's Press, ; Mills, Elizabeth Shown. Example: Klotzko, Arlene J. Identifying Sources in the Body of Your Paper The first time you cite a source, it is almost always a good idea to mention its author s , title, and genre book, article, or web page, etc. They cite references or comment on a designated part of the text above it. Just as the ideas of other researchers can bolster your arguments, they can also detract from your credibility if their research is challenged. Berndt, ; Harlow, Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list. However, if you are bringing in new ideas, be sure to cite them. New York: Doubleday,

Responses

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Keep only the material that is strictly relevant to your own ideas.

Voodoom

Otherwise, put it right at the end of the most relevant word.

Vudozshura

Citations found in printed and electronic documents are not always correct--they may contain erroneous information, making it impossible for the researcher to locate the original source. In-text references How you cite a working within your document varies depending on your writing style, whether you are quoting your source directly, and the type of source you are quoting. Yet it was not an easy task for him. When you quote, you generally want to be as concise as possible.

Nimuro

They cite references or comment on a designated part of the text above it.

Didal

As a general rule, it is okay to make minor grammatical and stylistic changes to make the quoted material fit in your paper, but it is not okay to significantly alter the structure of the material or its content. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks. Child Welfare, 73,

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