Register to view this lesson Are you a student or a teacher? I am a student. Some of these skills are applied in patient care, via the framework known as the Nursing Process. The skills that are most important are: Interpreting — Understanding and explaining the meaning of information, or a particular event.
Analyzing — Investigating a course of action, that is based upon data that is objective and subjective. Evaluating — This is how you assess the value of the information that you got.
Is the information relevant, reliable and credible? Critical thinking in nursing is an active process involving the nurse in sifting data, choosing which components are vital and then assessing and filtering to form a vital decision process.
Critical thinking is a part of the nursing process which adheres to a deep commitment to maintain intellectual discipline, as well as formulating decisions based on sound judgments and logical conclusions. Critical thinking will result in excellent clinical outcomes and patient safety.
Significance Assessing a patient requires several domains of information, and the nurse must be able to decide which pieces of information a patient offers are critical. Critical thinking, combined with creativity, refine the result as nurses can find specific solutions to specific problems with creativity taking place where traditional interventions are not effective. Even with creativity, nurses generate new ideas quickly, get flexible and natural, create original solutions to problems, act independently and with confidence, even under pressure, and demonstrate originality 4.
The aim of the study is to present the basic skills of critical thinking, to highlight critical thinking as a essential skill for nursing education and a fundamental skill for decision making in nursing practice. Moreover to indicate the positive effect and relation that critical thinking has on professional outcomes.
These skills include critical analysis, introductory and concluding justification, valid conclusion, distinguishing facts and opinions to assess the credibility of sources of information, clarification of concepts, and recognition conditions 6 , 7. Critical analysis is applied to a set of questions that relate to the event or concept for the determination of important information and ideas and discarding the unnecessary ones. It is, thus, a set of criteria to rationalize an idea where one must know all the questions but to use the appropriate one in this case 8.
The Socratic Method, where the question and the answer are sought, is a technique in which one can investigate below the surface, recognize and examine the condition, look for the consequences, investigate the multiple data views and distinguish between what one knows and what he simply believes.
This method should be implemented by nurses at the end of their shifts, when reviewing patient history and progress, planning the nursing plan or discussing the treatment of a patient with colleagues 9. The Inference and Concluding justification are two other critical thinking skills, where the justification for inductive generalizations formed from a set of data and observations, which when considered together, specific pieces of information constitute a special interpretation In contrast, the justification is deduced from the general to the specific.
So, the nurse who uses drawing needs categorizes information and defines the problem of the patient based on eradication, nutrition or need protection. In critical thinking, the nurses still distinguish claims based on facts, conclusions, judgments and opinions. The assessment of the reliability of information is an important stage of critical thinking, where the nurse needs to confirm the accuracy of this information by checking other evidence and informants The concepts are ideas and opinions that represent objects in the real world and the importance of them.
Each person has developed its own concepts, where they are nested by others, either based on personal experience or study or other activities. For a clear understanding of the situation of the patient, the nurse and the patient should be in agreement with the importance of concepts.
People also live under certain assumptions. Many believe that people generally have a generous nature, while others believe that it is a human tendency to act in its own interest. The nurse must believe that life should be considered as invaluable regardless of the condition of the patient, with the patient often believing that quality of life is more important than duration.
Nurse and patient, realizing that they can make choices based on these assumptions, can work together for a common acceptable nursing plan Independence of Thought Individuals who apply critical thinking as they mature acquire knowledge and experiences and examine their beliefs under new evidence.
Impartiality Those who apply critical thinking are independent in different ways, based on evidence and not panic or personal and group biases.
The nurse takes into account the views of both the younger and older family members. Perspicacity into Personal and Social Factors Those who are using critical thinking and accept the possibility that their personal prejudices, social pressures and habits could affect their judgment greatly.
Hence, the role of nurses has changed from being task-oriented to a team-based, patient-centered approach with an emphasis on positive outcomes. Strong critical thinking skills will have the greatest impact on patient outcomes. So, what is critical thinking and how do we develop this? It is how we view the client and the type of problems we deal with in practice when we engage in client care. To think like a nurse requires that we learn the content of nursing; the ideas, concepts and theories of nursing and develop our intellectual capacities and skills so that we become disciplined, self-directed, critical thinkers.
In nursing, critical thinking for clinical decision-making is the ability to think in a systematic and logical manner with openness to question and reflect on the reasoning process used to ensure safe nursing practice and quality care Heaslip.
Critical thinking when developed in the practitioner includes adherence to intellectual standards, proficiency in using reasoning, a commitment to develop and maintain intellectual traits of the mind and habits of thought and the competent use of thinking skills and abilities for sound clinical judgments and safe decision-making.
Intellectual Standards for Reasoning Practitioners in nursing who are critical thinkers value and adhere to intellectual standards. Critical thinkers strive to be clear, accurate, precise, logical complete, significant and fair when they listen, speak, read and write. Critical thinkers think deeply and broadly. All thinking can be examined in light of these standards and as we reflect on the quality of our thinking we begin to recognize when we are being unclear, imprecise, vague or inaccurate.
As nurses, we want to eliminate irrelevant, inconsistent and illogical thoughts as we reason about client care. Nurses use language to clearly communicate in-depth information that is significant to nursing care. Nurses are not focused on the trivial or irrelevant. Nurses who are critical thinkers hold all their views and reasoning to these standards as well as, the claims of others such that the quality of nurse's thinking improves over time thus eliminating confusion and ambiguity in the presentation and understanding of thoughts and ideas.
Elements of Reasoned Thinking Reasoning in nursing involves eight elements of thought.
To figure things out we need to enter into the thinking of the other person and then to comprehend as best we can the structure of their thinking.
Healthcare Job Descriptions In nursing, critical thinking skills are related to the clinical decision-making process.
The nurse gathers a lot of data or information regarding a patient and guides the nursing care of the patient based on observations as well as interactions. Also, it approaches issues when solving problems that are often used is the empirical method, intuition, research process and the scientific method modified Critical Thinking:What it is and why it counts. To reason effectively, nurses have developed skills and abilities essential for sound reasoning.
Journal for Nurses in Staff Development. It is an essential process for a safe, efficient and skillful nursing intervention. Critical thinking in nursing is an active process involving the nurse in sifting data, choosing which components are vital and then assessing and filtering to form a vital decision process. Many believe that people generally have a generous nature, while others believe that it is a human tendency to act in its own interest. By understanding the logic of human communication - that everything spoken expresses point of view, uses some ideas and not others, has implications, etc. As nurses, we want to eliminate irrelevant, inconsistent and illogical thoughts as we reason about client care.
The critical thinking nurse has an open mind and draws heavily upon evidence-based research and past clinical experiences to solve patient problems. If thinking is unchecked, nurses can be easily misguided and deliver flawed patient care. Empathetic listening will assist the nurse in determining priorities for patient care in collaboration with the patient to achieve desired patient goals. Monitoring how we express ourselves verbally will ensure that we maximize accurate understanding of what we mean through active dialogue and openness to feedback on our views. A combination of open-mindedness, a solid foundational knowledge of disease processes, and continuous learning, coupled with a compassionate heart and great clinical preceptors, can ensure that every new nurse will be a critical thinker positively affecting outcomes at the bedside. Spiritual Courage The values and beliefs are not always obtained by rationality, meaning opinions that have been researched and proven that are supported by reasons and information.
Nursing Department. The last and final step in critical thinking is communication. By doing so you will be thinking critically about nursing and ensuring that you gain in-depth knowledge about nursing as a practice profession. So when they have knowledge of their own reasoning-as they apply critical thinking-they can detect syllogistic errors 22 — Philadelphia: W. Also, it approaches issues when solving problems that are often used is the empirical method, intuition, research process and the scientific method modified