Nevertheless, it is included in the vowel section of the inventory of the Bengali script. This inconsistency is also a remnant from Sanskrit , where the grapheme represents the vocalic equivalent of a retroflex approximant possibly an r-colored vowel.
When a vowel sound occurs syllable-initially or when it follows another vowel, it is written using a distinct letter. Vowels are written differently, depending on whether they are independent or if they follow a consonant. It is thought to have originated as pictures around 2, BC. The earliest known logographs, or pictograms, were inscribed on oracle bones. Some of them resembled the objects they attempted to represent.
But even so, it was a real writing system and not just a series of pictures. Today roughly Chinese characters are pictograms, while the majority of characters are phono-semantic compounds. The Chinese writing system is well-suited for the language because the same words are pronounced quite differently in different parts of China.
For instance, the word for person is pronounced as ren, yen, nyin, or len in different regions of China, but it is written everywhere as. The orthographic syllable does not necessarily correspond to the phonological syllable in words containing consonant clusters. Ligatures composed of an independent vowel and a consonant are generally not used, with the exception of the letter wa which is a combination of o and ba and is sometimes used for writing the sound [w] in loan words.
The script is largely phonetic, that is, the pronunciation of a word can be deduced from its spelling, but there are a few phonological processes that alter the sound of a written letter. Proto-Oriya: ca. Medieval Oriya: ca. The stone inscription of the Pottesvara temple, Ganjam district CE , is a notable example iii. Transitional Oriya: ca.
Modern current Oriya: ca. We find archaic and medieval forms of Oriya, iv. The Antirigam plate of Yashabhanjadeva 12th which are more influenced by the calligraphy of CE shows Oriya calligraphy influenced by northern neighbouring scripts, such as, Nagari in which a few letters are more modern than others. This gives the impression of the script being in a.
Khilor inscription of Anantavarman 12th CE shows gaudiya character round shape on the upper b. Early epigraphical record of Puri inscriptions c. Earlier to historical forms of writing in Oriya script include this, the Puri inscription engraved in CE rock-edicts, temple inscriptions, stone-slabs, pillar of Choda-Gangadeva shows a variety in which the inscriptions, sculptures, copper-plates, coins and palm- prishthamatra is quite prominent.
We get innumerable instances of those vii. In the records known as the Kenduapatna items depicting all mentioned stages of the Oriya script Sanskrit copper-plates of the Ganga King Narasimhadeva during the time of the illustrious dynasties of Ganga, II CE , a transitional variety is seen of Somavamshi, Bhanja and Bhauma-kara, Shailodbhava Oriya squarish with round headlines in a ductus that Kings.
A few of them belonging to different centuries is common on copperplates and in stone inscriptions , are mentioned below. One of the earliest specimens of the Oriya Eastern Nagari is visible. A land-grant on copper-plate of King date equivalent to 6 April converted date as Purushottamadeva of Orissa 15th CE , inscribed on a the date of completion.
The large majority of manuscripts is relatively recent as they were written in the 18th, 19th or 20th century.
We get innumerable instances of those vii. Modern current Oriya: ca. Unlike Nagari and its eastern developments reduced in size and difficult to recognize at first glance. Ligatures composed of an independent vowel and a consonant are generally not used, with the exception of the letter wa which is a combination of o and ba and is sometimes used for writing the sound [w] in loan words. When a vowel sound follows a consonant or a consonant cluster , it is written with a diacritic which, depending on the vowel, can appear above, below, before or after the consonant.
However, by the 14th century, developed earlier, and India was again unique in the Firuz Shah Tughluq r. Earlier to historical forms of writing in Oriya script include this, the Puri inscription engraved in CE rock-edicts, temple inscriptions, stone-slabs, pillar of Choda-Gangadeva shows a variety in which the inscriptions, sculptures, copper-plates, coins and palm- prishthamatra is quite prominent.
IV, part, iv. The Nabataean alphabet contained only symbols for consonants.
The language used in this forms of Indian writing, from DevaNagari and Gujarati inscription is a dialect spoken on the Orissa - Madhya to Malayalam and Tamil. Even recent manuscripts Among characters, the combinations with may be important if they contain a rare and ancient text the diphthongs e, o, ai and au are written in a or if they contain artistic illustrations of well-known prishthamatra style their matras are to be added before works. But even so, it was a real writing system and not just a series of pictures. Table 3: showing the characters of Consonants Heritage India May - July Volume 5 Issue 2 59 Table 4: showing the phalas and numerals Main features of similarity and difference A remarkable speciality in the Oriya letter is The main features which distinguish early the typical style of the curve which is present instead Oriya from Proto-bengali are the cursive form and top of the horizontal top line of Devanagari in almost all loops. Alternatively, clusters can be written using half- or joining forms of all but one letter in the cluster. When a vowel sound occurs syllable-initially or when it follows another vowel, it is written using a distinct letter.
Although they sound like conjunct clusters, they will be written as a single whole a single ligature- character , not as a combination of two letters one full and other half. His initial attempts to solve the problems of uniformly left-to-right, but also the calligraphy evolved deciphering the script were a stimulation and inspiration and diversified, which led to the formation of all other for many other historians, linguists, phoneticians, Indian scripts derived from Brahmi. Conclusion This brief overview gives only a first impression of the richness of the tradition of Oriya writing, stretching over more than a millennium and till now not yet sufficiently studied and analyzed. A land-grant on copper-plate of King date equivalent to 6 April converted date as Purushottamadeva of Orissa 15th CE , inscribed on a the date of completion. Arabic alphabet The Arabic script is based on the Nabataean alphabet which was used to write the Nabataean dialect of Aramaic.