Seems like a good strategy to minimise weather helm. It seems the skinny boards are faster, with less drag at planing speeds, but are not so good at low speed. The lack of cross-sectional area means there's not much to hold the boat on line until it gets up speed. It seemed the lack of ability to take off from the start led to top sailors being buried in the fleet, with the lost time costing them dearly by the series end.
Side-on area is about the same as Fay boards at 0. These days very little is heard about the Paper Tiger from overseas except, of course, New Zealand. Conditions can change from no wind to extremely strong winds in a matter of minutes. It is best to learn to sail in light to moderate breezes 5 to 12 knots. Rigging your Paper Tiger Place the boat on the beach with the bows front facing into the wind.
Rest the mast on top of the boat with the mast top to the rear of the boat. Attach all of the stays to boat and mast except for the front upper stays.
The adjustable front lowers must be left loose to allow the mast to fit into the mast base. Standing in between your hulls, lift and stand the mast upright. Step the mast into place on the front beam and tighten the adjustable front lower stays to support the mast apply enough tension to these stays to allow the front upper stays to be connected. Battens must be firmly tied into the sail before hoisting up the mast.
Make sure the sail is attached to the halyard lock mechanism at the top as it is very difficult to re-hook a sail once on the water. Slide the boom onto the bottom foot of the sail and connect the boom vang to the mast spanner and the mainsheet to the traveller car always leave the traveller and mainsheet uncleated and free to move. Make certain that the centre boards and rudders are secured to the boat just in case you do capsize. Before leaving the beach put on some warm gear wet suit or old clothing under a water resistant slicker.
It will usually be colder out on the water than on the beach and it is better to be a little warm than a bit cold. An approved buoyancy vest or life jacket must be worn in all conditions while sailing. It you intend to race, sign on, otherwise let a friend know how long you intend to stay out on the water.
Leaving the beach Perform a final check of your boat and gear before leaving the beach making sure that the hatch covers are on tight, the ropes are not tangled and all the cleats and gear is operating smoothly.
Ask for a hand to lift your boat into the water, always keeping the boat head to wind bows into the breeze. The wind will generally be blowing from one of three directions; along the beach, out to sea offshore or straight onto the beach on-shore. If the wind is along the beach, keep the sail nice and loose, your back to the wind and turn the boat to face out to sea. Put one rudder part way down, jump on board and pull in the sail a little and sail straight out into deeper water before lowering the centre boards and rudders completely.
If the wind is off shore and fairly light, put one of the rudders part way sown and with the sail loose, turn the boat and sail out into deeper water. Be prepared for a gybe as often with off shore breezes the wind can be very shifty changing direction constantly. If the wind strength is strong you will need a lot more room to manoeuvre the boat into a downwind position as the boat is often difficult to turn with the rudders only half way down.
Additionally, beware of unsuspecting swimmers. It is sometimes easier to leave all boards and rudders up and drift out backwards by just sitting on one of the bows of your boat you have no steerage, so make sure that the way out is clear. You will need to put a centre board part way down as well as a rudder because you will be pointing into the wind while trying to get out through the waves the centre board will prevent some sideways slip. You may have to walk the boat through some of the waves in order to achieve a little more water depth in the troughs between the waves so that the centre board may be partially lowered.
This will also reduce the chances of your boat being washed backwards into the shore and your rudders being broken. Don't try to point too high, just go for some speed to get you through the waves. Basic Sailing Beating to windward sailing into the wind When beating to windward the traveller should be set about 15 to 20 centimetres from the centre of the boat and the main sheet main rope to control boom angle should be pulled in tight.
The centre boards and rudders should be all the way down. The wind will feel like it is coming straight from the bow of the boat. If the bow is steered too high into the wind the sail will begin to luff the wind hits the back of the sail and causes it to back wind or become distorted in shape near the mast. Generally, you will find that 45 degrees from the true wind actual wind direction will be the best angle of beating to windward.
Tacking turning the boat through the eye of the wind In order to tack the boat you need to keep it moving as smoothly as possible all the way through the tack.
Start your tack going up a wave and finish it coming down the back of the same wave. The rudder is moved by pushing the tiller away from you smoothly. Sometimes it helps to tie a cord from the centre of the tiller crossbar to the centre of the boat's rear beam to restrict the rudder movement to about 45 degrees. This prevents excessive drag in the water by the rudders when turned too far.
The boat may get into 'irons' stuck head to wind or pointing directly into the wind and not moving forwards if the tack is not performed cleanly. That is, the boat is neither on a starboard tack or a port tack. To get out of irons push the tiller away from you and push the boom out in the same direction. The boat will reverse in an arc and at the end of this arc straighten up the rudders and pull the sail in using the mainsheet. This will get the boat moving again.
Reaching sailing across the wind Reaching is great fun. The boat travels at its fastest and you have a wide range of sail positions and directions in which to move. Reaching angles include a 'close reach' just off the angle of beating or pointing- about 90 degrees to the wind and a 'broad reach' sailing side-on to away from the wind. The traveller must be let out towards the side of the boat the further away from the beating position the further out the traveller should be set.
Centre boards should be all the way up in most cases. The exception being a very close reach where the windward centre board should remain in the down position. However, sailing down wind in heavy breezes will break more masts and 'bottle' capsize more boats than any other sailing angle. It is important to keep your lower front stays firm to support your mast and reduce the chances of a breakage. This manoeuvre occurs very quickly so be prepared to duck under the boom. The traveller will be right as far as it can possibly go and both centre boards will be fully up.
It is best to control the gybe by pulling in the main sheet a little way first and then let it out as the boom swings across the boat. This will also cushion the shock load on the mast. Capsizing or bottling tipping the boat over Capsizing is not uncommon in sailing and should be treated as part of learning to sail. A Paper Tiger is a very buoyant boat and will not sink even if full of water so always stay with your boat.
The Paper Tiger is also a very easy boat to right. Returning to the beach Returning to the beach is in the reverse order to leaving the beach. The centre boards and rudders need to be considered together with the angle of the wind to the shore.
Leave rudders in the half down position so the boat can be manoeuvred but also sailed into shallow water at the same time. Keep an eye out for swimmers and leave plenty of room to the turn the boat up into the wind to stop it before the hulls hit the bottom. Always ask for the help of the more experienced Paper Tiger sailors at your club.
Most Paper Tiger sailors are more than willing to pass on their knowledge to new comers. It is part of the sport, normally resulting from a mistake made by the skipper. Whilst it is to be avoided if you want success on the race course, it is not something you should be worried about, so long as you have some basic knowledge of how to right the boat. The two most common ways to capsize a Tiger are: 1 getting overpowered and heeling too far while going upwind or on a tight reach.
This is the most common amongst newcomers to the class, often the result of getting the mainsheet stuck in the cleat, and 2 involves a nosedive while on a broad reach, sometimes resulting in a complete cartwheel of the boat, which is more common among more experienced Tiger sailors. If the boat simply tips over on its side, as in the first case, the most likely result is that the mast will sink and get stuck in the mud in shallow lakes.
Once this happens, climbing onto the hull, or worse still the centreboard, will do nothing at best or result in major damage at worst. Once the mast is in the mud, you need to turn the boat around so that the mast is pointing upwind. This enables the trampoline to catch the wind to help blow the boat along and pull the mast out, as well as aiding in righting the boat. Trying to swing the boat around so that the mast is pointing into the wind is no easy task if the correct technique is not used.
Once you have capsized, and the mast has started to sink, you should attempt to swing the boat as soon as possible. The method I use is to sit on the bow the further out to the front the better , which lifts the sterns clear and for some reason starts the boat swinging around, pivoting about the mast top. This will be a slow process, but is quite effective.
I have been assured that sitting right on the stern has the same effect, although I have not had an opportunity to test this method. Once the boat has swung around and the mast is pointing upwind, you should stand on the bottom hull preferably on a chine around the centre of the boat. Most boats should have a righting rope. Use the rope to hang off, using your weight to drag the boat upright. If no righting rope is fitted, grabbing the jumper strap will also work, although it requires more effort.
When the boat starts to come up, get ready to throw your weight onto the hull on which you are standing.
This will counteract the momentum that will try to launch this hull into the air and possibly capsize the boat the other way, which can be very disheartening and tiring. If you capsize as a result of nosediving, the boat may end up in any number of different positions. The above technique will normally work whenever the mast gets stuck. If you have to get towed out of the mud, always tow away from the mast, ie. Never wrap a tow rope around the hull, always try to use the front beam.
If you have to be towed into shore, wrap don't tie the rope around the front beam about 6 or 7 times and hold onto the end. This allows you to undo it quickly. Hopefully, you won t be involved in this process too often! Whether it be used for recreation or for racing, if the systems on the boat are hard to use when sailing, it is hard work and becomes frustrating.
In my experience, when you update your systems, it is best to save your money up so that you can buy the best quality equipment. Main Sheet The main sheet is, without a doubt, the most used system and when made user friendly the boat will perform very well.
The sheet rope sizes may vary. I would recommend no larger than 10mm diameter and no smaller than 8mm dia. The length will depend on where you position the boom hangers. The best pulleys to use are roller bearing pulleys to rid unwanted friction. Diagram A shows a standard arrangement of pulleys, having a ratio with the pulley on the traveller car being a double with a becket, with a double pulley and two single pulleys placed on the boom. The single pulley that leads the main sheet to the ratchet block is located approximately 1m from the front of the boom.
The ratchet block, which is attached to the fore-aft beam, is located for the skipper s comfort. Diagram B shows that the ratchet can be located on the front boom hanger giving a ratio , but when sailing in heavy winds it may tend to pull the skipper towards the back of the boat. Diagrams C and D show alternate arrangements for the main sheet system. Some people are using fixed goosenecks and setting up a cunningham system, which lets them adjust the luff without altering the vang setting.
Diagram E shows the system that most people are using. It uses a sliding gooseneck with a triple roller bearing pulley, suiting a 6mm rope, shackled to the gooseneck. The bottom pulley is a double roller bearing pulley. Swivel cleats are mounted on both sides of the mast. The downhaul rope is tied off at the lower shroud so that it can be operated from the skipper s hiking position.
NOTE: If you are using an Australian section mast, make sure the gooseneck is a tight fit in the web of the sail track as the track is known to open out and crack. Vang The basic set up of the vang has not changed a great deal, but the quality of the pulleys and cleating arrangement has.
The roller bearing and the use of 4mm dia. A or ratio system, doubled with a wire strop, usually works quite well. A cleat mounted on the bottom block will make the system easy to use. If you change or alter any system, remember to make it easy to operate while sailing and try to make it as friction free as possible.
There are several methods of supporting the mast that are currently in use that all do basically the same thing. I suggest that if you do not have an adjustable system then you look around and find one that best meets your needs. The system should be simple and easily accessible while sailing.
A method of calibration also needs to be incorporated so settings can be repeated throughout the race. Ponsonby's Mark Bell, fourth overall, leads the veteran fleet, with Sean Syman, from the Evans Bay club in Wellington, leading the junior fleet. Syman is 12th overall. The last lap was survival mode. Today was much more pleasant, half the breeze. There were some big waves but it was much more enjoyable I think I got conned into the job.
They also sing whale-songs at speed, but that's the fat trailing edge. It seems the skinny boards are faster, with less drag at planing speeds, but are not so good at low speed.
Hopefully, you won t be involved in this process too often! Many items now approved were not in the original plans. In short, what I am proposing is that in order to improve your sailing, skippers should absorb as much relevant information as they possibly can from all available sources and then form their own opinions. If the wind is very light, you will need to start your approach earlier. Vang The basic set up of the vang has not changed a great deal, but the quality of the pulleys and cleating arrangement has.
The footstraps should be positioned so as to allow you to have the gunwale located somewhere between the bottom of your backside and halfway down your thigh with your legs slightly bent. All my mates know me as Rowdy, some don't even know my first name. Always ask for the help of the more experienced Paper Tiger sailors at your club. Of course you will have to hike very hard. Most Paper Tiger sailors are more than willing to pass on their knowledge to new comers. Diagrams C and D show alternate arrangements for the main sheet system.
Attach all of the stays to boat and mast except for the front upper stays. The majority of your testing and trialing of new systems should be well and truly complete by the time you sail at a major regatta.
Moderate to strong winds knots Within this wind range nearly all skippers will be starting to depower. This was owned by David Hart Hartatack. The other controls are a more effective means of depowering.
This was owned by David Hart Hartatack. Diagram E shows the system that most people are using. Ian also seemed to have modified the shape at the top, so that the board would rake more on reaches and less on works, keeping the centre of effort around the same spot. While on the beach set up your sail with the lower forestays slack, then watch what happens to the camber and the leech as you tighten and loosen the front lowers. The best way to learn how to use your lower forestays is to simply go out on the water and try fiddling.
Use the rope to hang off, using your weight to drag the boat upright. When I am uncertain about solving a problem or I need to educate myself about an unfamiliar topic, I simply begin my own information gathering process. Don't try to point too high, just go for some speed to get you through the waves. Up to this time all fibreglass and foam sandwich Paper Tigers were built with the beams bolted through the deck to blocks attached to the gunwales in the same manner as the original design. You may have to move slightly further aft to avoid digging the nose in to the small waves just behind the rear chainplate. This will get the boat moving again.
This enables me to build on my existing information base and then I am hopefully able to solve the problem myself. Additionally, beware of unsuspecting swimmers. He's the publicity officer for the New Zealand Paper Tiger Owners' Association and pumps out publicity reports regarding the sport. Andrew has also written an excellent guide to help you get the most out of this manual and your sailing.
Incorporating Ian's genius raking method seems like a good idea; if no-one minds? Turn around generally gybe and position myself for the final approach. I believe it is better to use too little tension than too much in these conditions. You can steer to these telltales by keeping them pointing back at the mast or slightly to windward of it, but not more than mm. At one minute to go, you should be on track for the position on the line at which you want to start.