Transdisciplinary thinkers take a unique approach to solving problems. However, the way most combined and double degrees are established does not foster transdisciplinary learning. This is because the combination of degrees tends to create an administrative rather than pedagogical structure.
This means that an arts-science student, for example, simply has access to subjects from arts and science faculties. Upon graduation, graduates would be able to perform skills essential to both speciality areas. But they have not necessarily developed transdisciplinary thinking.
The rare double degrees that are pedagogically designed can unlock the potential of a combined curriculum. In such cases, arts-science graduates can also imaginatively develop unique research methods, or ethically interpret information systems, or persuade non-experts to change their behaviour based on scientifically informed debate. Over 60 years after the foundation of the Arts Council , 50 years after the creation of the RSC, with publicly funded British plays the toast of Broadway, visits to newly free museums doubling in a decade and British concert life the envy of the world, surely we don't have to justify giving public money to the arts?
Well, yes, we do. Ivan Lewis, Labour's former culture spokesman, acknowledges that the case for the arts is yet to be won even within his party; and the new arts spokesman, Dan Jarvis, sees quantifying the value of the arts as one of his most urgent priorities. In the zero-sum economy of austerity Britain, the arts are increasingly required to couch their case in terms appropriate to those basic services — social care, education, policing — with which they're in competition for dwindling public funds.
It wasn't always like this. When it was founded in , the Arts Council could justify its activities in its own terms: it was there to widen access to the arts throughout the country, as well as to maintain and develop national arts institutions in the capital. Behind the latter policy lay a theory of artistic value that you could call patrician: art's purpose as ennobling, its realm the nation, its organisational form the institution, its repertoire the established canon and works aspiring to join it.
In this the council was seeking to reverse a rising tide of populism art's role as entertainment, its realm the marketplace, its form the business, its audience mass , a goal summed up in the founding chairman John Maynard Keynes's ringing declaration: "Death to Hollywood.
Margaret Thatcher sought to shift power from the producer to the consumer. During the 80s, in the arts as in so many other spheres of life, Margaret Thatcher sought to shift power from the producer to the consumer, using the market to disempower the provocative from political theatre groups to the high avant garde in favour of the populist. This was seen most clearly in the cluster of forms that defined the cultural 80s.
Popular in form and patrician in content, the heritage industry was cultural Thatcherism, promoting as the then secretary of state for national heritage, Virginia Bottomley, put it in May "our country, our cultural heritage and our tourist trade".
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge. Write at least words. Although I agree that it is important to spend money on public services, I do not think spending on the arts is a waste of money. There are several reasons for spending a significant amount of the government budget on public services. First and foremost, public services are the things such as hospitals, roads and schools, and these things determine the quality of life that most of us will have.
Another important advantage for children when practicing art is that it provides a medium through which they can express their emotions and feelings. In other words, young children do not have the linguistic capabilities to put their ideas into language and thus communicate directly. Therefore, by using art, they are able to convey meaning through pictures and symbols. Organizing your proposal Although each funding agency will have its own usually very specific requirements, there are several elements of a proposal that are fairly standard, and they often come in the following order: Title page Introduction statement of the problem, purpose of research or goals, and significance of research Literature review Project narrative methods, procedures, objectives, outcomes or deliverables, evaluation, and dissemination Personnel Budget and budget justification Format the proposal so that it is easy to read.
Use headings to break the proposal up into sections. If it is long, include a table of contents with page numbers. Title page The title page usually includes a brief yet explicit title for the research project, the names of the principal investigator s , the institutional affiliation of the applicants the department and university , name and address of the granting agency, project dates, amount of funding requested, and signatures of university personnel authorizing the proposal when necessary.
Most funding agencies have specific requirements for the title page; make sure to follow them. Abstract The abstract provides readers with their first impression of your project. To remind themselves of your proposal, readers may glance at your abstract when making their final recommendations, so it may also serve as their last impression of your project. The abstract should explain the key elements of your research project in the future tense.
Most abstracts state: 1 the general purpose, 2 specific goals, 3 research design, 4 methods, and 5 significance contribution and rationale. Be as explicit as possible in your abstract.
The statement of problem should provide a background and rationale for the project and establish the need and relevance of the research. How is your project different from previous research on the same topic?
Will you be using new methodologies or covering new theoretical territory? The research goals or objectives should identify the anticipated outcomes of the research and should match up to the needs identified in the statement of problem.
List only the principle goal s or objective s of your research and save sub-objectives for the project narrative. Literature review Many proposals require a literature review. Literature reviews should be selective and critical, not exhaustive. Reviewers want to see your evaluation of pertinent works. For more information, see our handout on literature reviews. Project narrative The project narrative provides the meat of your proposal and may require several subsections.
The project narrative should supply all the details of the project, including a detailed statement of problem, research objectives or goals, hypotheses, methods, procedures, outcomes or deliverables, and evaluation and dissemination of the research. Clearly and explicitly state the connections between your research objectives, research questions, hypotheses, methodologies, and outcomes.
What are your hypotheses?
They develop, for example, a policy for high school English, or a strategy for tertiary math instruction. Have you made your hypotheses explicit? Project narrative The project narrative provides the meat of your proposal and may require several subsections.