Editors and peer reviewers are looking for interesting results that are useful to the field. Without those, a paper might be rejected. Unfortunately, authors tend to struggle with the discussion section. They need to explain why the findings are interesting and how they affect a wider understanding of the topic. Authors should also reassess the existing literature and consider whether their findings open the door for future work.
Aim for a wide audience Stacy Konkiel, director of research and education at Altmetric, London, which scores research papers on the basis of their level of digital attention. Di Girolamo and R. Reynders J.
Those findings tie in with my experience. My biggest piece of advice is to get to the point. Authors spend a lot of time setting up long-winded arguments to knock down possible objections before they actually state their case. Make your point clearly and concisely — if possible in non-specialist language, so that readers from other fields can quickly make sense of it.
If you write in a way that is accessible to non-specialists, you are not only opening yourself up to citations by experts in other fields, but you are also making your writing available to laypeople, which is especially important in the biomedical fields. It is very important that you choose a journal that will be interested in publishing your work.
One first step could be to look at who you have referenced, and see where they are publishing. Do they publish reviews, or only original work? Other considerations could be, does the journal provide free colour images online? Will you have to pay page charges?
Is the journal open access? Can you upload supplementary information or supplementary datasets? How long are the articles typically published by this journal? Writing a paper takes a long time You should understand that getting a paper out takes a long time.
You will need to start writing papers in your second year or start of your third year if you want them to be published by the time you finish your PhD. Writing your first paper is likely to be a learning process, and you will go through many drafts with your supervisors.
You should not be disheartened if your first draft comes back covered in red ink! I personally find it very helpful to finish a draft, and then lay it aside for a little while. Coming at it with fresh eyes helps me see the problems and understand the solutions much better. Writing a paper is formulaic Most papers will follow a rather set pattern: Introduction and rationale.
Here, you should set out your reasons for doing the research and identifiy the key unknowns. The ruling called for the company to cease business in the State of New York. California Education Code Section "penalizes the preparation or sale of term papers, thesis, or dissertations for compensation State residents or academic institutions "acting for the interest of itself, its students, or the general public" can file suit against offenders for "any relief as is necessary.
For example, while some essay mills state that their products are not intended to be submitted for credit, they may also boast of the high grades that their papers have received.
The Florida Statutes Section Criticism and controversy The academic community has criticized essay mill companies for helping students to commit academic fraud. Some essay mills have defended themselves against criticism by claiming that they are selling pre-written examples which students can use as guidelines and models for the student's own work. In , a UK-based essay mill called Elizabeth Hall Associates required students purchasing essays to sign a disclaimer stating that "any material provided by Elizabeth Hall Associates [is] on the understanding that it is a guidance model only.
Students from different academic backgrounds have used essay mills. Many prestigious universities and colleges have caught their students turning in papers they bought from essay mills. One of the forms of cheating was turning in papers bought from essay mills. Naturally, they must all have the chance to read and make comments on the manuscript before it is submitted.
Even minor authors can pick out irregularities that the bigwigs don't spot. Handling distant co-authors can be a lot harder than popping into the next office. Along with my boss, my transatlantic co-author and I spent a very long and exhausting time trafficking half-written drafts between us in what seemed like an eternal triangle.
Just exchanging intact figures as large e-mail attachments or by FTP added an extra dimension of difficulty. What's more this person actually was a co-author--one who wrote a small chunk of the paper as well as approving my sections. Finally, before you submit, get as many well-informed people as you can to read the thing. I also find it useful to pick one completely uninformed friend who can usually only understand three words out of every five.
Uncluttered by the incomprehensible science, this individual often can spot the glaringly obvious error. I have to say that writing my thesis was a whole lot easier after having written a paper first.
I had already learned to accept the idea that what existed as a whole section in my head might end up as a single sentence on the page. What's more, I had learned just how powerful a communication tool a carefully crafted sentence can be.
Posted in:. Therefore, you should be explicit and clear in describing the benefit of the paper. The Introduction should not be long. Indeed, for most journals, this is a very brief section of about to words, but it might be the most difficult section due to its importance.
Rule 5: Interest your reader in the Introduction section by signalling all its elements and stating the novelty of the work. Discussion of the results For many scientists, writing a Discussion section is as scary as starting a paper. Most of the fear comes from the variation in the section. Since every paper has its unique results and findings, the Discussion section differs in its length, shape, and structure.
However, some general principles of writing this section still exist. The structure of the first two moves is almost a mirror reflection of the one in the Introduction. In the Introduction, you zoom in from general to specific and from the background to your research question; in the Discussion section, you zoom out from the summary of your findings to the research context, as shown in Table 4.
Table 4 Moves in Research Paper Discussions. Move 1. Explain the meaning and importance of your finding. Consider alternative explanations of the findings.
Move 2. Research Context a. Compare and contrast your findings with those of other published results. Explain any discrepancies and unexpected findings.
State the limitations, weaknesses, and assumptions of your study. Closing the paper a. Summarize the answers to the research questions. Indicate the importance of the work by stating applications, recommendations, and implications.
Open in a separate window Adapted from Swales and Feak and Hess [ 11 , 12 ]. The biggest challenge for many writers is the opening paragraph of the Discussion section. This is important in those cases where the researcher presents a number of findings or where more than one research question was presented.
One of the most frequent mistakes of the novice writer is to assume the importance of his findings. Even if the importance is clear to you, it may not be obvious to your reader. Digesting the findings and their importance to your reader is as crucial as stating your research question. Another useful strategy is to be proactive in the first move by predicting and commenting on the alternative explanations of the results. Addressing potential doubts will save you from painful comments about the wrong interpretation of your results and will present you as a thoughtful and considerate researcher.
Moreover, the evaluation of the alternative explanations might help you create a logical step to the next move of the discussion section: the research context. The goal of the research context move is to show how your findings fit into the general picture of the current research and how you contribute to the existing knowledge on the topic. This is also the place to discuss any discrepancies and unexpected findings that may otherwise distort the general picture of your paper.
Moreover, outlining the scope of your research by showing the limitations, weaknesses, and assumptions is essential and adds modesty to your image as a scientist. However, make sure that you do not end your paper with the problems that override your findings.
Try to suggest feasible explanations and solutions. This should be a general statement reiterating your answer to the research question and adding its scientific implications, practical application, or advice. Just as in all other sections of your paper, the clear and precise language and concise comprehensive sentences are vital. However, in addition to that, your writing should convey confidence and authority. The easiest way to illustrate your tone is to use the active voice and the first person pronouns.
Accompanied by clarity and succinctness, these tools are the best to convince your readers of your point and your ideas. Rule 6: Present the principles, relationships, and generalizations in a concise and convincing tone. Choosing the best working revision strategies Now that you have created the first draft, your attitude toward your writing should have improved.
Moreover, you should feel more confident that you are able to accomplish your project and submit your paper within a reasonable timeframe. You also have worked out your writing schedule and followed it precisely.
Just as the best and most precious diamond is no more than an unattractive stone recognized only by trained professionals, your ideas and your results may go unnoticed if they are not polished and brushed. Despite your attempts to present your ideas in a logical and comprehensive way, first drafts are frequently a mess.Why is your research important? What is known about the topic? What are your hypotheses? What are your objectives?
Academic Writing for Graduate Students. Numerous readers of this section will help you identify the missing links and improve the technical style of this section. What materials did you use? Uncluttered by the incomprehensible science, this individual often can spot the glaringly obvious error.
Rule 5: Interest your reader in the Introduction section by signalling all its elements and stating the novelty of the work. How to Write an Effective Discussion. Writing Your Journal Article in 12 Weeks: a guide to academic publishing success. What is even more important is that you have your scheduled writing time that you are going to keep for your future publications, for reading and taking notes, for writing grants, and for reviewing papers.
How long are the articles typically published by this journal?
Figurative language can also bamboozle a non-native English speaker.
Open in a separate window Adapted from Swales and Feak and Hess [ 11 , 12 ]. We programmed behavioral computer-based experiments of Study 1 by using E-Prime.
Due to the nature of essay bank essays, students may find themselves more likely to be caught for committing academic dishonesty. One of the cheaper options an essay mill might offer is just a detailed outline of information a student should include in an essay that a student will write themselves. This makes it easier for people to print out, saves on page charges, and means that your paper will be consistent between the online PDF version and printed version. Research Context a.