In keeping with this way of thinking, in some parts of the world but not in others , attempts have been made to decrease the blanket use of sedating or antipsychotic drugs for BPSD. It is now well established and accepted that wandering is not one phenomenon but many. Attention to the context and history will help to determine the unmet need.
This is largely true; they are used alternatively in different jurisdictions. In connection with dementia, a broader view is often required. Certainly a man may lack the cognitive capacity to decide why he should be allowed home from hospital, but he may still have the competence to evaluate at an emotional level his desire to get home, and he might have the volitional competence to try hard to survive at home.
Respect for him as a person i. Specific Ethical Issues In an important piece of research, Strech et al. It is not sensible to try to consider each ethical issue here.
But three broad areas can be considered chronologically. The Diagnosis From what has already been said, it should be apparent that giving the diagnosis of a dementia itself raises ethical concerns. But there are also issues about when to make the diagnosis. This highlights developing thoughts about the notion of autonomy, which is increasingly seen in relational terms.
None is fully autonomous and dependence increases in dementia. Indeed, autonomy and dependence may be seen as different sides of the same coin Agich So ethical issues in dementia often involve consideration of how to weigh up the interests of one person with dementia against another the family or close carer.
These sorts of consideration will vary between different communities, depending on the extent to which they do or do not see the person with dementia as an autonomous individual where respect for autonomy is given great weight. In some cultures, for instance, it may seem more acceptable not to involve the person concerned in the diagnosis.
Whenever the diagnosis is made, however, when it is given to the person with dementia or to his or her carers, it needs to be conveyed in an appropriate manner. Providing Care As the condition progresses more care will be required. This in itself can raise ethical tensions if, for instance, the person does not recognize either that there is a problem or the extent of it.
Again, how this might be handled will vary between communities, but the issue of taking over tasks can be emotive. In some communities, often in low nd middle-income countries, where there is greater veneration of older people, pragmatic solutions can be found. The elder person might still be consulted about important decisions — when to sow seed — but in the face of cognitive impairment others might make the actual decision.
It may seem appropriate, if it would decrease distress, that the person should not be told that she is going to the day center, but told that she is going for a ride in the car. It may seem appropriate not to tell the man that his wife has died if this information continually upsets him. Another person may require medication to be given covertly if this is found to be helpful. But all of these and similar scenarios are contentious.
People with dementia will not always be able to consent, often because they will lack the capacity or competence to do so. Decisions are made in different ways in different countries for people who lack decision-making powers. Substituted judgments are where the decisions that are made attempt to match the decision that the person him or herself would have made if able to do so.
The aim of providing care is to enable the person with dementia to live as well and as independently as possible. One possible way to achieve this is to use various forms of assistive technology.
These can vary, from appliances to make it easier to use a toilet to gadgets that turn the gas off if it is left on in the kitchen. Electronic tracking and tagging mechanisms have probably been the most discussed in the ethics literature; and, more recently, there has been increasing interest in the use of various types of robot.
There will frequently be grounds to argue that assistive technology is a good thing inasmuch as it is able to improve the lives of people with dementia: it allows them to go out and walk with more security; it allows them to live independently; it allows them to stay in touch with other people; it increases their safety.
It may also decrease the apparent necessity for real human contact if everything can be monitored and controlled from a distance. End Of Life Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing interest in palliative care for people with dementia. Some countries are more hesitant about withdrawing and withholding treatments, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation, than others. The judgments required are often nuanced. Antibiotics for fevers, for instance, can be used with curative intent but can also be used palliative, or they can be withheld.
On the whole, the aggressive treatment of terminal conditions in dementia, sometimes seen in more developed countries, is not regarded as appropriate from the perspective of palliative care. A focus on basic issues around care would seem to be better.
For instance, instead of feeding tubes of various sorts when the person is having problems with swallowing, one-to-one contact between the person and a career during careful oral feeding can be regarded as more humane, even if there remains a risk of aspiration of food into the lungs. Double effect and ordinary and extraordinary means are ethical doctrines that seem apt in the context of end-of-life clinical care in dementia.
The report also sets out an ethical framework. This consisted of six components. The second emphasized that dementia was a harmful brain disease, but the third, nonetheless, suggested that it was possible to live well with dementia.
The fourth component stated that the interests, both of people with dementia and of those who care for them, should be promoted in terms of relational autonomy and of well-being. It noted that everyone is dependent on one another but also encouraged the idea that people with dementia should be regarded as citizens.
This means that everyone has responsibilities to support people with dementia, within families, communities, and within society as a whole. But it suggests that the responsibilities are global too. If personhood is regarded broadly, such that persons are characterized as situated embodied agents, then it becomes imperative to treat them broadly too as biopsychosocial and spiritual beings embedded in a personal and cultural history, which incorporates the past and the present Hughes a.
The ethical challenges here are global because there exists the real risk, with the increasing prevalence of dementia affecting low-and middle-income countries especially, that this vulnerable group of citizens will be neglected and that lower standards of care, which undermine personhood, will be tolerated.
Conclusion Dementia is not one thing. It is a feature of aging even if it is not normal. Its complex status as a concept raises concerns about the medicalization of normal aging. It raises a raft of ethical concerns, which mirror concerns around many chronic and degenerative diseases. It also raises ethical dilemmas that are particular.
Worldwide, the aging of the population makes dementia a global issue and one which will continue to require commitment, compassion, and solidarity. Bibliography : Agich, G. Dependence and autonomy in old age: An ethical framework for long-term care. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. World Alzheimer report : Executive summary. Executive summary. The disease causes the mental and physical behavior of an individual. Writing an assignment about dementia can help students to improve their research paper writing skill.
It also helps students to know more about the disease. This article gives lots of ideas and tips for writing powerful research paper on dementia. Research paper on dementia: Things to observe when writing it When writing a research paper on dementia, students must observe the following things: 1.
The paper can be presented as an informative type essay or an argumentative type essay. The paper must include a captivating thesis statement. The paper must be created using correct information obtained with proper research. In the United States, there are more than three million cases of dementia each year.
According to World Health Organization, the number of people living with dementia is currently estimated at Which is dramatically greater than normal cognitive deterioration expected from normal aging. Dementia affects memory, comprehension, calculation, language, judgment, thinking, and learning capacity. Dementia does manifests through the accompanying disorders because it does not exist on its own.
In other words, dementia is a disorder that comes about through the existence of the related disorders. The main ones are four, but they are not the only disorders that cause dementia. Alzheimer's disease is one of the most common causes of dementia. The term 'dementia' describes a set of symptoms, which can include memory loss, changes in mood and problems with communication and reasoning. Traumatic brain injury may cause generalized damage to the white matter of the brain or localized damages.
A temporary reduction in the supply of blood and oxygen to the brain may lead to this type of dementia. A stroke or brain infection can also be the cause of dementia. Excessive alcoholic intake results in alcoholic dementia. Dementia is a disease that affects mental capabilities in which memory loss is one of the key features of this disease.
Memory loss creates difficulty in completing every day tasks. Most people who suffer from the disease need assistance with their activities of daily living. This is a disease that affects cognitive and physical abilities in the patient. There are lots of treatments available, but there is no cure for it. Dementia itself is not a disease.
Dementia is a variety of symptom sets. Providing care for dementia patients results in stress related health impacts to the caregiver. The caregivers go through a journey with the dementia patient and need a strong support system. The amount, progression and deterioration of the brain of the two are strikingly similar.
Canine Dementia is a rising concern for elderly dogs, as the damage appears to localize on the areas of the brain that affect spatial determination. There are those who will develop Alzheimer 's dementia. Example: Unable to follow directions from the store or, unable to comprehend a crossword puzzle when it was something they loved to do. Using music to better the lives of people with dementia and Alzheimer 's disease has been sweeping across the country.
These people have been known to have a reduction of troublesome behaviors, enhanced emotional and cognitive skills, increased social skills, maintaining and improving active involvement, and have improved memory and language skills. It provides an introduction to dementia and analyses its prevalence in society. The various forms of dementias are elaborated with description about dysfunctions and symptoms. Nursing Assessment and Interventions are provided in the further sections which discusses about actions nurses should take on while evaluating patients and treating them.
Most often relatives feel isolated and without help as if they were to be left alone, having no help to deal with the "unknown". They are also afraid of having to watch their loved ones become more and more distant, potentially losing a horrible battle with this disease. Every 4 seconds one new case of dementia is diagnosed.Order similar paper Indeed, dementia is a modern plague. Scientists and doctors fight this illness, but there tips for writing your college admissions essay samples still no effective cure. However, studying of this disease and its most widespread forms may help patients paper their relatives. That is why this dementia research paper might be useful not only dementia students, but also for every person who is interested in this problem. This term is writing to the fundamental methods of reversing dementia: proper nutrition and dieting.
Antibiotics for fevers, for instance, can be used with curative intent but can also be used palliative, or they can be withheld. Hence, it can reasonably be argued, according to this Lockean view, that the person with dementia is not the same person that he or she once was. The ethical challenges here are global because there exists the real risk, with the increasing prevalence of dementia affecting low-and middle-income countries especially, that this vulnerable group of citizens will be neglected and that lower standards of care, which undermine personhood, will be tolerated. An improper diet or malfunction in food can lead to such severe problems as dehydration, headaches, a high risk of urinary tract infection, and increased confusion. But it is not without ethical importance. Question 5 In the first article, the objectives of the author were identification as well as the examination of research on the view of the acute hospital care by the nurses and people with dementia Digby, Lee, and Williams,
Along with improved detection of this disorder, many new causes and treatments have been found, from which many innovative techniques have been discovered to prevent future incidences or reduce the effects of this condition. Each brain structure is responsible for different functions. Why do some develop this disorder, while others do not
Although, games are a great way to interact with elderly individuals with dementia, a second way that people who are working with the elderly community can interact with elderly individuals with dementia is by bring familiar objects such as a photographs and accessories to help trigger memories and engage in good conversation But it is a conceptually complex notion.
This essay will give an overview of dementia followed by the most common types of dementia. It is most prevalent in the elderly, where many health problems can come into play. The quest for treatments and cures to this dilemma has brought additional questions to be answered, with limited success The purpose of writing this article is to show the increase of dementia patients and how dementia become a global issue needs to contain.
Autonomy is sometimes regarded as the central principle of liberal democracy and Western biomedical ethics. A similar bioethical concern exists within high-income countries between the rich and poor. This article provides tips for writing better research paper on dementia Research paper on dementia can include the risk factors associated with dementia. If we are lucky, we will all live to be old and gray.
The uncomfortable fact that seniors are sexually active is compounded when the seniors in question are diagnosed with dementia. In the second article, the authors try to establish the environment necessary to ensure patients with dementia can live a comfortable life. The name of the disease was chosen after Dr.
This is a disease that affects cognitive and physical abilities in the patient. Dementia is a disease that contains a group of symptoms that contain loss of memory, judgment, language, complex motor skills, and other intellectual function-caused by the permanent damage or death of the brain 's nerve cells, or neurons According to Julie G. In the first article, the authors identify the fact that patients with dementia need special treatment that is not provided in an acute primary care setting. This work includes helpful advice and instructions about curing AD from the point of view of dietary science. Ronald Dworkin — tackled problems of this nature in connection with advance planning by talk of experiential and critical interests Dworkin